Download Work and Revolution in France: The Language of Labor from by William H. Sewell Jr PDF

By William H. Sewell Jr

Paintings and Revolution in France is very applicable for college students of French historical past attracted to the the most important revolutions that came about in 1789, 1830, and 1848. Sewell has reconstructed the artisans' international from the company groups of the previous regime, in the course of the revolutions in 1789 and 1830, to the socialist experiments of 1848. examine has printed that an important type struggles came about in craft workshops, no longer in 'dark satanic mills'. within the 1830s and 1840s, employees mixed the collectivism of the company guild culture with the egalitarianism of the progressive culture, generating a different artisan kind of socialism and sophistication realization that climaxed within the Parisian Revolution of 1848. The e-book follows artisans into their daily event of labor, fellowship, and struggles and locations their heritage within the context of wider political, fiscal, and social advancements. Sewell analyzes the 'language of work' within the broadest feel, dealing not just with what the employees and others wrote and acknowledged approximately labour yet with the full diversity of institutional conventions, fiscal practices, social struggles, ritual gestures, customs, and activities that gave the staff' international a finished form.

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For a trade to "avoir . . confrairie" therefore meant to have a common devotional association; and in practice each metier jure nearly always had its own confraternity. Thus the entire phrase "avoir corps, confrairie et communaute" meant to have a recognized single legal personality (corps et communaute) and to have a common devotional association (confrairie). But the phrase implied something beyond this as well. For a trade to be a corps, or body, also implied that it had a common will or spirit - an esprit de corps - and a deep and indissoluble bond such that harm done to any one "member" is felt by all.

Corporations were therefore units of pervasive and enduring solidarity as well as hierarchical, punitive, and jealously particularistic privileged institutions. Nor was there anything paradoxical, in the culture and society of the old regime, about this combination of hierarchy, surveillance, particularism, and solidarity. The very word "corps," or body, which was used to designate a bewildering variety of institutions in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century France, necessarily implied all of these characteristics.

Rather, labor had the traditional Christian connotations of pain, burden, and penitence. "12 Travail, in short, was not the work (oeuvre, ouvrage) that is created but the pain required to create it. It was the curse of Adam to labor in the sweat of his brow for his daily bread and of Eve to bear children in labor. Adam's fate was thus precisely parallel to Eve's: to sustain the human species through painful, exhausting, and unreflective effort of the body, through pure animal exertion. In the Christian scheme of things, labor was a badge of vileness, the proof of and the punishment for man's original sin.

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