By Mary Ann Danowitz Sagaria (eds.)
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Extra resources for Women, Universities, and Change: Gender Equality in the European Union and the United States
After that, according to selection criteria that are not yet clear, MA studies may follow for one or two years for some students. Therefore, the former ‘normal’ university time limit is split into two unequal halves, and the first academic degree for all students has been reduced to the lower of the two existing norms. The broad and foreseeable impact of these reforms is publicly debated with a considerable amount of controversy. 2 They suspect that the general aim of these reforms is to legitimize tremendous cutbacks of state funds for the institutions of higher education by drastically reducing the number of students that transgress the time limit of three years, which indeed is part of significant plans to reduce state activity (see below).
In fact, nobody would deny that gender has progressed in these realms; the central ministry of science and education, for instance, has taken up a gender concept as a distribution criterion for any research funds they promote, and the government of Northrhine Westphalia has demanded a gender profile from any university in the recent goal negotiations. On the other hand, experience shows – and organization theory agrees – that any formal regulation can be counteracted informally. Inherent in these processes are questions of gender play that are rarely addressed in public debates, in expert discourses, or in administrative acts that push those processes forward, regulate them, and evaluate them.
Chapter Three Between Change and Resistance: Gender Structures and Gender Cultures in German Institutions of Higher Education Ursula Müller This chapter offers information on recent developments in German higher education following the Bologna Protocol, reflects on the processes of implementation of new regulations into the universities as organizations, discusses gendered subtexts and asymmetrical gender cultures as relevant factors of change or obstinacy, and provides some empirical evidence on German institutions of higher education regarding gender equality measures.