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By Marc Simmons

"Occasionally a very amazing e-book appears-one that takes a subject matter wanting dialogue, completely researches it, and provides credible ends up in a desirable and intensely good demeanour. Witchcraft within the Southwest is this type of quantity, and as such, is a needs to for all readers, be they students, scholars, or others. . . . the amount devotes equivalent time to Spanish and Indian supernaturalism alongside the Rio Grande. establishing with a succinct evaluation of the which means and evolution of witchcraft in Europe and Spain, Simmons establishes the lifestyles of many related ideals between local population of the hot global. relocating chronologically to Spanish colonization, the writer vividly conveys Spanish reactions to Pueblo lifestyles and faith, the fears of witches and different supernatural forces that plagued Spanish colonists. . . . Emphasizing the ideals and nature of witchcraft instead of the particular mechanics (which are secret), he follows Hispanic groups into the overdue nineteenth century. . . . Readers learn the way witchcraft suits into the Pueblo global view and the way it compares and contrasts with eu and Spanish kinds in such components as motivation, forms, powers, ideals and technique of acquisition. . . . Simmons' examine offers a wanted evaluation and person who is punctiliously according to to be had ethnohistorical records and credible anthropological data."-American Indian Quarterly a certified historian, writer, editor, and translator, Marc Simmons has released a variety of books and monographs at the Southwest in addition to articles in additional than twenty scholarly and renowned journals.

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The haste with which this was done and the stress it placed upon the Indians bore at least one unexpected result: in the wake of the missionary program, witchcraft expanded prodigiously. Catholic bishops writing to their superiors in the mother country remarked with some frequency upon the fact that the Indians understood little of the religion that was preached to them, and evidence abounded that the formalism and dogma of the Church was being diluted by both ancient superstitutions and a proliferation of new ones.

The verdict read that all were guilty of sorcery and of communion with the Devil as well as of plotting with neighboring Apaches to rebel against the government. A large delegation of chiefs and warriors appeared in Santa Fe and confronted the Spanish governor, demanding release of their sorcerers and offering as ransom chickens, eggs, tobacco, beans, and bales of hides. The governor was much taken aback by the show of force and he hastened to comply with their request by freeing the prisoners.

Many persons in the south were able to escape the warriors' fury and flee to El Paso, as did some twenty-five hundred survivors who rallied in Santa Fe and fought their way out of the capital. The disaster was of such magnitude, the greatest loss ever sustained by Spain in her overseas empire, that official reports could account for it only through the intervention of the Devil and his legion of sorcerers on the side of the Indians. Although it is now clear that monumental ineptitude on the part of Spanish officials and missionaries was the direct cause of the tragedy, it is safe to conclude that delusions concerning the role of sorcery and the application of witchcraft so distracted the Spaniards that they failed to perceive more fundamental causes of native unrest, and that this failure indirectly contributed to the debacle.

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