Download Water Fluoridation Principles & Practices by American Water Works Association PDF

By American Water Works Association

Fluoridation is the addition of the chemical fluoride in ingesting water to lessen teeth decay. because fluoridation remedy grew to become universal perform over 50 years in the past, enamel decay has been lowered forty to sixty five percent.

This handbook offers info and advice at the layout, operation, and upkeep of fluoridation structures in water therapy. assurance comprises human wellbeing and fitness results of fluoride, calculating dosage, feed platforms, set up, operation, upkeep, and defluoridation

Show description

Read or Download Water Fluoridation Principles & Practices PDF

Similar energy & mining books

World Metal Markets: The United States Strategic Stockpile and Global Market Influence

The us holds strategic stockpiles of approximately a hundred commercial minerals, metals, and different commodities. those stockpiles have prompted the area commodity markets in lots of methods. This paintings brings jointly in a single position, documentary and statistical proof in regards to the measurement and nature of the U. S.

Tin in antiquity : its mining and trade throughout the ancient world with particular reference to Cornwall

Tin in Antiquity is the 1st finished background of the early metallurgy of tin, a mine of data in this infrequent, hugely prized steel so important to the constructing civilization of the Bronze Age. The origins of tin have constantly been a secret, however the writer has unearthed archaeological facts from worldwide to track the tinfields used ahead of the invention of ecu deposits.

Time Lapse Approach to Monitoring Oil, Gas, and CO2 Storage by Seismic Methods

Time Lapse method of tracking Oil, gasoline, and CO2 garage through Seismic tools provides a brand new expertise to geoscientists, good logging specialists, and reservoir engineers, giving them a brand new foundation on which to steer judgements on oil and fuel reservoir administration. Named throughout (Accurately managed and many times Operated sign System), this new overview procedure is gifted to handle extra complicated reservoirs, similar to shale and heavy oil.

Extra resources for Water Fluoridation Principles & Practices

Sample text

In addition, if the feed rate for solution feed is impractically low, a more dilute solution can be fed (although this is not preferred). Conversely, there is almost no upper limit to the capacity of gravimetric dry feeders or pumps. Large water plants can select either dry feed using sodium fluorosilicate or direct feed using fluorosilicic acid. All other water plants have a choice, modified by individual circumstances. Assistance can be obtained from state health department engineers, manufacturers’ representatives, and consultants.

The metering pump should be equipped with an antisiphon valve. There should also be an antisiphon valve at the fluoride injection point if the fluoride solution is injected into a water main. Once the solution has been adjusted, the only operator attention required is the occasional replenishing of chemical (without weighing) and the cleaning of the saturator. The fluoride saturator does not need to be sealed as tightly as the acid carboy. Saturator systems should have a water meter and, if necessary, a water softener.

A sodium fluoride saturator is to be used to treat a plant rate of 180 gpm. Determine the feed rate in gallons per minute and milliliters per minute. 009 gpm × 3,785 mL/gal = 34 mL/min EXAMPLE CALCULATED DOSAGE PROBLEMS___________________________ Sodium Fluorosilicate Example 1. 5 percent chemical purity). 84 mg/L Example 2. 5 percent chemical purity). 06 mg/L Fluorosilicic Acid Example 1. What is the calculated dosage for a plant using 43 lb of 23 percent fluorosilicic acid to treat 1,226,000 gal of water?

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.15 of 5 – based on 37 votes