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By M. Jha

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It is imperative that farming practices should conserve and utilize the available rainfall efficiently. To optimize water storage 48 Water Conservation under any precipitation condition, the soil should have enough infiltrability, permeability and capacity to store water. Water is the main constraint in dryland farming in the West of Iran. Precipitations tend to accrue during winter, while crops’ growth season in spring is accompanied by high temperatures. These conditions are the constraints limiting crop production in dryland agriculture in Iran (Hemmat and Eskandari, 2004b).

Taking into account reference evapo-transpiration (ETo), crop type, length of growth, growth stage and effective rainfall, gross irrigation requirement was computed for the two test crops. 12 mm/day as determined by Haftay (2009) was used for this study. The crop water requirement for the two test crops was estimated by applying Equation (6) given as: ETc   ETo  Kc  (6) Where: ETc = crop evapotranspiration; ETo = reference evapotranspiration and Kc = crop coefficient values which were adapted from Doorenbos and Pruitt (1977).

This return flow to ground water is usually estimated at about 25% to 30% of the volume of ground water pumped in dry season and applied for irrigation. However, due to increasing popularity of more efficient irrigation methods like sprinkler or drip systems, this type of recharge has a declining trend. 5. Conclusions A watershed is the meeting point of climatology & hydrology. It is therefore, necessary to manage our watersheds so as to absorb the climatic shocks likely to come from the erratic Importance of Percolation Tanks for Water Conservation for Sustainable Development of Ground Water in Hard-Rock Aquifers in India 29 climatic patterns expected in near future.

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