By E. San Juan Jr.
Granted formal independence in 1946, the Philippines serves as a battleground among the neoliberal undertaking of capitalist globalization and the long-lasting aspiration of Filipinos for nationwide self-determination. greater than ten million Filipino workers—over one-tenth of the country’s overall population—work as agreement staff in all elements of the area. How did this “model” colony of the USA devolve into an impoverished, war-torn neocolonial hinterland, a supplier of inexpensive hard work and uncooked fabrics for the remainder of the area? In towards Filipino Self-Determination, E. San Juan Jr. explores the historic, cultural, and political formation of the Filipino diaspora. by way of concentrating on the paintings of important Filipino intellectuals and activists, together with Carlos Bulosan and Philip Vera Cruz, in addition to the problems of gender and language for staff within the usa, San Juan presents a historical-materialist analyzing of social practices, discourses, and associations that specify the contradictions characterizing Filipino existence in either the U.S. and within the Philippines.
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S. empire. But it is not idiosyncratic since he, like thousands of his compatriots from the Philippines (or other subjugated territories such as Puerto Rico, Cuba, Micronesia, and so on), was exposed to the same political, economic, and ideological forces that shaped the lives of the majority of migrant workers in the United States in the last century. This occurred in varying degrees, with nuanced complexities, depending on their ethnic/racial, gender, class, and national positions at particular historical conjunctures.
In any case, it is instructive to celebrate the centennial by noting that Filipinos in the United States form a decisive contingent of this evolving diaspora because of its location, not yet because of their collective praxis, in the metropole of the global hegemon. The ideology of “Americanism” retooled to fit the neoconservative “civilizing mission” of the “New American Century” still prevails, despite the Foucauldian negotiations of assimilated “model minority” cheerleaders of the community.
S. Congress rescinded the rights of these same veterans. Of the original 141,000, only 29,000 survive; 8,000 reside in the United States, the rest in the Philippines. Even if the Filipino Veterans Bill is approved, benefits will not be extended to those veterans living in the Philippines. “Americanism,” anyone? S. citizens, were deported as criminals, manacled during the twentytwo-hour chartered flight to the homeland. Under the white-supremacist USA PATRIOT Act, according to the organization FOCUS, the entire Filipino community—not just individuals like the Cuevas family of Fremont, California—is under attack (Mendoza 2003).