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By Tom B. Bottomore

Examines either the guidelines and sensible reviews that have encouraged present-day conceptions of the way a socialist economic system could be organised and controlled.

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A speech delivered ίη February 1931 Ιο leadίηg personnel οΓ socialist industry, Stalin (1955, ρ. 41) observed: 'We are fi[t~' ΟΓ LI hundred years behind the advanced countries, We must make good this distance ίη ten years, Either we do ίι, ΟΓ we shall go under", Ι ι was an astonishingly accurate prediction, The [orced ind ustrializaιίοη undertaken ίη the 1930s was a major factor enabling the Sovict υηίοη ιο withstand, and eventuaIIy ωΓη back, the massivc assault by Nazi Germany ίη 1941, which involved [or the rest οΓ the \\,Llr four-fifths of the whole German armcd forccs, The second political element ίη the industrialization progranlIl1l' concerned the rclation betwcen classes, Tlle Bolsheviks had Icd a successful 'proletarian revolution' based υροη a vcr)' small ίπdω,­ trial working class ίη alliance Witl1 a vcry largc pcasantry, and ίι \\;ι~ apparent ιο all of them that the existcncc οΓ millions οΙ PC,Is,lIl!

Of men and machines throughout the economy [and for this purpu~e] we need universal statistics which, ίη coordinated surveys, comprise whole countries ΟΓ even the world ... Economic plans would have Ιο be designed by a special offίce which would luuk οη the total national economy as a ~ ί gle giant concern. ; surveys, since within the framework of a planned economy s\ ch prices, as long as they continue at all, are fίxed ίη an essen ially arbitrary manner b}' associations, by the state ΟΓ by othel' authorities, whereas previously they were automatic results of competition, The central office for measuremenI ίη kind, as we might call the ofIϊce mentioned above, would have as one of iIs tasks the presentation of the economic process at any given time, but above all would haνe ιο design the economic plans for the future ....

Notes Ι. See Porter (1980), ch. 16, and thc rcfcrcnccs givcn tl1crc. 2. Οη this debate scc Erlich (1960) and Splllbcr (1964). Sc\"cr;11 st tJ(jcnt~ "ι this period have noted that tl1C Sovict cconoιllic dchatcs "'crc pionceriJ1g attempIs ίπ the ficld οΓ dcvclopn1cnt CCOI1OIlliCS which "111~' l11tKh I;JIn. after 1945, with thc emcrgencc οΓ 'dc\"eloping ('ι)ΙΙl1trίcs' ;Ind tl1C lInivcrsal conccrn witl1 economic growtl1. cl1gaged ι11Ι' Γllll ;IttCllliOI1 01' Westcrn cconon1ists. As Spulhcr (1964. Ι'ρ, \" \'ί) H)tc~: 32 Τhe Socialίst Economy Since the Ι 950~.

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