By Suzana Sawyer, Edmund Terence Gomez
Foreign associations (United countries, international financial institution) and multinational businesses have voiced trouble over the opposed influence of source extraction actions at the livelihood of indigenous groups. This quantity examines mega source extraction initiatives in Australia, Bolivia, Canada, Chad, Cameroon, India, Nigeria, Peru, the Philippines.
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Additional info for The Politics of Resource Extraction: Indigenous Peoples, Multinational Corporations and the State
Miskitu) and non-indigenous groups (Bryan 2007:324–5). Pre-emptive logging, as it were, in turn compromised ongoing disputed adjudications as the right to have rights is contingent upon indigenous community members living up to the standards by which their claims are judged: the standard of being indigenous. The result was a landscape of divided indigenous communities beleaguered by internal conflict among those who were recognized rights-bearers, those who were intractable, and those who were abject.
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. empowering indigenous peoples, providing guidelines that serve to achieve this goal (see chapter 26). For a discussion on this concept, see Daes (1996). See, in particular, the definition provided by José Martinez Cobo (1992) in his Study on the Problem of Discrimination against Indigenous Populations. According to this document, ‘indigenous communities, peoples, and nations are those which, having historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing in those territories, or parts of them.
This state–corporate alliance invariably interferes (overtly or covertly) in a community’s internal affairs by delineating the distribution of title among indigenous peoples. This in turn transforms indigenous senses of property, community, and belonging, which in turn transform social relations among indigenous peoples within and between communities (Bryan 2007; Sawyer 2004). Significantly, the regime of governance that emerges melds both neoliberal and indigenous rights concerns, and in the On Indigenous Identity and a Language of Rights 29 process produces, shapes, and circumscribes (rather than suppresses) cultural difference.