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By Jae-Yong Chung

This ebook appears at Korea's financial, social and spatial improvement tactics from the early Modernisation interval to the monetary difficulty of 1997. It makes a speciality of the political and ideological keep watch over of the country throughout the developmental period, in addition to the environmental difficulties of Korea, and examines how society and surroundings were used as skill to realize swift accumulation. offering an holistic method of Korean improvement, this identify permits a finished view of Korea's fiscal miracle in addition to its contemporary difficulties.

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The other opposing dynamic of the capitalist accumulation process is the tendency toward equalisation. This tendency originates from the universalisation of wage-labour brought about by the displacement of precapitalist modes of production. As we have seen, the need for mobility of capital, and the development of means of transportation and communication lead to the continual drive to overcome all spatial barriers and to the annihilation of space by time. The ‘universalising tendency of capital’ represents an inherent drive toward spacelessness, in other words, toward an equalisation of conditions and levels of production: thus ‘a shrinking world’.

This stimulated the demand for investment goods and for energy and intermediate goods such as steel and plastics (see Dunford 1988, Freeman 1987). To explain the waves of accumulation and investment, attention must be paid to the development of the forces of production which include the development of industries, technologies and human skills. Institutional forms 11 The interrelationship between the regime of accumulation, the MSR and the hegemonic bloc produces structural forms which crystallise institutionalised compromises.

115). 18 1 1 1 11 11 11 11 A new framework for environmental analysis The geographical fixation of use-value and the fluidity of exchangevalue translate into tendencies toward differentiation and equalisation which produce geographical pattern of uneven development. The universalisation tendency of capital reduces the whole globe to source for surplus value, thus equalising the conditions and level of production over space. Yet the division between developed and underdeveloped countries and regions is produced by the inherent tendency of capital to differentiate space.

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