Download The Lines Of Torres Vedras 1809-11 by Ian Fletcher PDF

By Ian Fletcher

Following the conflict of Bussaco on 27 September 1810 Wellington's seriously outnumbered troops started to withdraw in the direction of Lisbon. by way of the night of nine October the British and Portuguese started to withdraw in the back of a line of protecting works that have been outfitted to the north of Lisbon. those weren't the rudimentary box works that the French expected, yet an incredible community of forts, batteries and redoubts whose building have been all started the former November - the strains of Torres Vedras. This 30-mile-wide line utilised the area's ordinary defences, damming rivers, scarping hillsides, blocking off roads and developing forts upon just about all of the hills. This name describes its layout, production and effectiveness within the face of French assaults.

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Extra info for The Lines Of Torres Vedras 1809-11

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The translation by Paul Iue or Ive (with wrong attribution of original ownership to General Guillaume de Bellay, Sire de Langey), made four decades after the original publication of the work, is used here as a starting point for the translation from the French. 7 For greater clarity, however, the present text has substituted modern terms where this seemed helpful. Pagination refers to the Ive translation. The style of the book is difficult for today’s readers to digest: like Mendoza, Fourquevaux tried to pack all his text into as few, but enormously long, sentences as possible.

E. “A people reduced to the necessity of taking up arm against their sovereign,” he wrote under the heading of “Liberty,” {i}s obliged to exert itself by the fear of a revengeful master, death and slavery, and by the hopes of independency, and all the advantages which attend it; such powerful motives generally render their efforts successful. ” Vattel therefore urged clemency on the part of the prince, and he argued that the Duke of Alba, who prided himself on having ordered twenty thousand executions in the Netherlands, would be remembered with “universal detestation” even if the Dutch revolt had not 26 The Strategy Makers been warranted.

5 Over 400 of his letters and reports have been preserved. He also wrote a book on the military institutions of Florence, Florence militaire, which seems to have been lost. Fourquevaux had clearly read Machiavelli’s Art of War, and his Instructions on the Conduct of War has roughly the same structure. The Instructions were first published anonymously, and later editions were falsely attributed to a Guillaume du Bellay, the French king’s representative in Turin. 6 Themes of Instructions on the Conduct of War include the importance of a just cause in war: among other issues, Fourquevaux grappled with the old Christian problem of what to do if a third party is threatened or subjected to violence.

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