By Steven Brint, Jerome Karabel
Within the 20th century, americans have more and more seemed to the schools--and, particularly, to the nation's faculties and universities--as guardians of the adored nationwide perfect of equality of chance. With the easiest jobs more and more monopolized by way of people with greater schooling, the chance to wait collage has develop into an essential component of the yankee dream of upward mobility. The two-year college--which now enrolls greater than 4 million scholars in over 900 institutions--is a vital expression of this dream, and its invention on the flip of the century constituted one of many nice options within the background of yank schooling. by way of providing scholars of constrained skill the chance to begin better schooling at domestic and to later move to a four-year establishment, the two-year tuition supplied a huge new pathway to a faculty diploma--and to the nation's transforming into specialist and managerial periods. yet long ago 20 years, the group collage has gone through a profound swap, moving its emphasis from liberal-arts move classes to terminal vocational courses. Drawing on advancements national in addition to within the particular case of Massachusetts, Steven Brint and Jerome Karabel provide a heritage of neighborhood schools in the United States, explaining why this shift has happened after years of pupil resistance and reading its implications for upward mobility. because the authors argue during this exhaustively researched and pioneering learn, the junior collage has continually confronted the contradictory job of extending a school schooling to the hitherto excluded, whereas diverting nearly all of them from the nation's four-year schools and universities. Very early on, two-year collage directors perceived vocational education for "semi-professional" paintings as their and their scholars' safest long term area of interest within the academic hierarchy. With thirds of all group students enrolled in vocational courses, the authors contend that the dream of schooling as a path to upward mobility, in addition to the proper of equivalent academic chance for all, are heavily threatened. With the starting to be public debate concerning the kingdom of yankee better schooling and with greater than 1/2 all first-time degree-credit scholars now enrolled in group faculties, a full-scale, traditionally grounded exam in their position in American existence is lengthy late. This landmark examine offers such an exam, and in so doing, casts severe mild on what's targeted not just approximately American schooling, yet American society itself.
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Additional resources for The Diverted Dream: Community Colleges and the Promise of Educational Opportunity in America, 1900-1985
6. The junior college idea hardly swept the nation immediately. By 1910, only three public two-year colleges had been founded (Eells 1931, p. 74). But by 1918, there were fourteen public and thirty-two private junior colleges enrolling over 4,000 students (see Table 2-1). S. Bureau of the Census 1975, p. ' Sponsorship in California, Illinois, Michigan, and Missouri During this first period of junior college development, California took over the lead from Harper and his associates in Illinois. As in Illinois, the key actors in California were top university administrators.
Lange added, "The State university has stood for the junior college plan for more than fifteen years, and its policy is to further the establishment of junior colleges in every way possible" (quoted in Zwerling 1976, p. 50). State laws passed during the next twelve years continued to encourage the establishment of junior colleges in California. Until 1921 most of them were funded as departments of high schools that served local school districts. When the first independent junior colleges began to appear, after 1921, they continued to be organized on a district basis, so that several local communities would be served by a single district junior college.
24 Part II, which covers Chapter 5 through 7, is a detailed case study of the development of community colleges in Massachusetts. The history of junior colleges in this state encapsulates, in telescoped fashion, developments at the national level. Founded initially as institutions primarily devoted to the provision of liberal arts-transfer programs, Massachusetts's community colleges were transformed during the 1970s into overwhelmingly vocational institutions. 25 We have included both national-level and state-level studies because of our conviction that each is critical to understanding junior college development.