By Seth Mallios
A conflict of cultures at the North American continent. With a spotlight on indigenous cultural structures and organization idea, this quantity analyzes touch interval kin among North American heart Atlantic Algonquian Indians and the Spanish Jesuits at Ajacan (1570–72) and English settlers at Roanoke Island (1584–90) and Jamestown Island (1607–12). It is an anthropological and ethnohistorical learn of ways eu violations of Algonquian gift-exchange structures ended in intercultural strife in the course of the overdue 1500s and early 1600s, destroying Ajacan and Roanoke, and approximately destroying Jamestown.
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Extra resources for The Deadly Politics of Giving: Exchange and Violence at Ajacan, Roanoke, and Jamestown
The only relationship of signi¤cance is the economic one between equated exchange values (Kopytoff 1986:68). The individuals engaged in the trade are de-emphasized (Gregory 1982:42). Any person can buy or sell any item at any time. The transactors are reciprocally independent; their relationship is only a momentary alliance that will terminate upon the conclusion of the trade (Marx and Engels 1977:91). Furthermore, the closeness of the relationship between commodity-exchanging individuals and their respective status does not necessarily change with each purchase.
In addition, Chesapeake and Carolina native groups commonly equated the distant origins of certain goods—whether from Europe or remote North American sources—with the supernatural. They 18 / Introduction cherished trade items that originated from areas beyond the region (Miller and Hamell 1986:319–320). Furthermore, some of the European goods physically resembled native spiritual items, and the indigenous population often included these particular items in their ceremonies (Miller and Hamell 1986:315).
Natives sought them precisely because they were so different from indigenous materials. The third category of goods that Algonquians acquired from the Europeans consisted of a wide variety of small objects. Middle Atlantic settlers frequently referred to their knickknack trade items as “bables,” “toys,” “trash,” “tri®es,” and “trinkets” (Smith et al. 1986; Quinn 1955). These goods included beads, bells, trinkets, needles, pins, and dolls. Archaeological excavations at many contact-period sites have veri¤ed the importance of glass beads and other small ¤nds as staples in the European trade kit (Bradley 1977; Deagan 1987; Fairbanks 1968; Fitzgerald et al.