By Professor Klaus-Dieter Borchardt, Publications Office
The Lisbon Treaty entered into strength on 1 December 2009, after being ratified by way of all 27 Member States of the ecu Union, and brought alterations to ecu legislations and associations. The ABC of eu Union legislation via Klaus-Dieter Borchardt examines the roots of the ecu undertaking and its improvement as a criminal order, and is a definitive reference paintings at the topic. the writer bargains perception into how the ecu Union is outfitted, its huge ideas and the felony order underpinning it, taking a look at this relating to the nationwide legislation of the Member States. This e-book is meant for individuals without professional criminal wisdom who desire to comprehend the consequences of eu legislation for his or her day-by-day lives.
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Additional resources for The ABC of European Union Law
The methods for calculating the qualified majority will change in various stages. Up until 1 November 2014, the weighted voting system introduced by the Treaty of Nice and giving large Member States more influence will be used. Under this system, a qualified majority is achieved when there is a majority of Member States with at least 255 votes out of 345, although one Member State can also demand that these Member States represent at least 62 % of the EU population. 059 T H E A B C O F EU R O PE AN U N I O N L AW Since 1 January 2007 the number of votes each Member State can cast has been as follows.
The range of matters covered by the specific conferment of powers varies according to the nature of the tasks allotted to the EU. Competences which have not been transferred to the EU remain in the exclusive power of the Member States. The EU Treaty explicitly states that matters of national security stay under the exclusive authority of the Member States. This naturally begs the question of where the dividing line is between EU competences and those of the Member States. This dividing line is drawn on the basis of three categories of competence: 038 T H E A B C O F EU R O PE AN U N I O N L AW ■ exclusive competence of the EU (Article 3 TFEU) in areas where it can be assumed that a measure at EU level will be more effective than a measure in any Member State that is not coordinated.
The facts of this case were as follows. In 1962, Italy nationalised the production and distribution of electricity and transferred the assets of the electricity undertakings to the national electricity board, ENEL. As a shareholder of Edison Volt, one of the companies that was nationalised, Mr Costa considered that he had been deprived of his dividend and consequently refused to pay an electricity bill 030 T H E A B C O F EU R O PE AN U N I O N L AW for ITL 1 926. In proceedings before the arbitration court in Milan, one of the arguments put forward by Mr Costa to justify his conduct was that the nationalising act infringed a number of provisions of the EEC Treaty.