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By Erik Baark, Andrew Jamison

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In France, Auguste Comte developed Saint-Simonism into positive philosophy and Cabet took Fourierism to North America in the wave of utopian community building that followed on the defeats of the revolutions of 1830 and 1848. But the first phase of technological culture critique was, in some fundamental sense, superseded by the ensuing technological development itself. The machine attacks of the followers of Ned Ludd and Captain Swing were localised attacks; ifthey were widespread (and not limited to England) they were, in any case, confined to certain regions where skilled workers were particularly hard-pressed by the advent of mechanisation.

See, C. ) Long Waves in the World Economy (London: Frances Pinter, 1984). Other important recent works on innovation theory are C. HilI and J. : Ballinger, 1979). The following exposition relies heavily on Christopher Freeman, The Economics oJ Industrial Innovation, 2nd edn (London: Frances Pinter, 1983). Ernest Mandel, Late Capitalism (London: New Left Books, 1972) chapter four. 34 The Technology and Culture Problematique 11. Freeman, The Economics of Industrial Innovation (1983) p. 214. 12. Nathan Rosenberg, Perspectives on Technology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976) pp.

Most likely the amount of co-operation between actors at the national, organisational and individual levels can be decisive. In India, the contradictions which exist between the central public authorities and a majority of firms or groups in society seem to undermine the possibilities for successful implementation of long-term strategies. In Japan, by contrast, there exists a tradition of co-operation between major actors which has frequently led to rapid implementation of policies - once these have gone through the consensual decision-making process.

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