Download State Responsibility for Interferences with the Freedom of by Philipp Wendel PDF

By Philipp Wendel

A multitude of conventions within the zone of the legislation of the ocean comprises provisions at the factor of repayment for (wrongful) interferences with navigation. even if interferences via warships and coast shield vessels, as a result of a perceived elevated probability of foreign crimes at sea, appear to have develop into extra common, the repayment provisions have rarely been utilized. The ebook analyses all appropriate reimbursement provisions and compares them to the final legislation of kingdom accountability. This inevitably contains a dialogue of matters just like the accountability of overseas enterprises, legal responsibility for lawful behavior and several other and joint legal responsibility in public overseas law.

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1. gov/products/pubs/ proliferation/#statement>. 34 Chapter I: Freedom vs. S. administration have asserted that PSI had scored some successes, but claimed that they were unable to reveal details for fear of disclosing and damaging sensitive operations and intelligence sources and methods. In May 2005, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice noted that, in the previous nine months, the United States and PSI partners have cooperated on 11 successful interdiction efforts. 189 PSI cooperation stopped the transshipment of material and equipment bound for ballistic missile programs in countries of concern, including Iran.

S. S. S. S. 167 The United States did not consider these measures sufficient to guarantee its own security. It has therefore adopted legislation going beyond the mentioned IMO measures. S. S. port authorities 96 hours prior to their arrival with information on cargo and crew. Car160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 Özcayir, Oya, “The International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code”, 9 J. Int’l Maritime L. (2003), pp. , at 581. UN Doc. A/59/63, “Oceans and the Law of the Sea, Report of the Secretary General” (18 August 2004), at para.

To finance the fight against a central government and to undermine its security policy) purposes. Therefore, this analysis will now focus on terrorism as another potential ground for interferences with navigation. II. Terrorism and weapons of mass destruction – the new dominant concern Since 09/11, the international community has perceived an increased risk of a terrorist attack. Maritime trade has not been immune from this development. This part is therefore going to deal with the potential scenarios of a terrorist attack on maritime trade, their potential economic consequences and the proposed and implemented measures to prevent and react to these attacks.

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