By Ulrich Hilpert
In the back of the rhetoric of `intervention' and `deregulation' which has followed nation makes an attempt to stimulate technological innovation within the final decade is secreted a narrative of failed goals, confusion, clutter and incoherence.Techno-industrial innovation does make calls for at the country, not just by way of new industries, but additionally in regard to the inter-relation of business and R&D coverage and the production of markets.This ebook presents a comparative research of techno-industrial innovation in Europe, Japan and america. Drawing on case reviews starting from the semi-conductor to the biotechnology industries, the e-book provides a finished and specified survey of nationwide options for the inner and international markets and units them of their political context, the place `the charges can be excessive and the pay-offs uncertain'.
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In contrast to the West German attempt to give incentives to private enterprises and the French interventionist concept, small countries cannot base themselves on a similarly broad research structure. Historical developments have given rise to particular conditions. National styles in technology policy not only introduce national variations but create concrete conditions on how to introduce technoscientific progress. 37 The state’s difficulties in utilizing the research structure, because of the strong academic but weak technological orientation in Denmark or the role of big firms and the military in Sweden, illustrate the attempts to create the condition leading to techno-scientific progress and at the same time illustrate how much the form of prevailing structures and relationships have to be taken into account.
The national industries’ positions in international markets also contribute to these initiatives and avoid problems of amortization in expensive technologies. The United States internal market in solar technology makes up about 25% of the world market. In telecommunications systems this increases to about 40%. This situation reduces the commercial risks of the new technologies. Strong innovation processes can be introduced and the advantageous position in international competition brings additional economic benefits.
Supercomputers, super-chips and artificial intelligence are related to military research and contribute to the industrial sector of military goods that accounts for about 10% of the nation’s gross national product. In this very specific industrial sector the state policy on technoindustrial innovation is concentrated to a large extent by the Pentagon, supporting the design of new and advanced weapons on the basis of appropriate techno-scientific progress. The application of this techno-scientific progress for other goods and other sectors of the industrial structure indicates to what extent the innovation process focuses upon techno-scientific progress.