By Patrick B. Miller, David K. Wiggins
The essays awarded the following research the complexity of black American activities tradition, from the association of semi-pro baseball and athletic courses at traditionally black faculties and universities, to the careers of person stars similar to Jack Johnson and Joe Louis, to the demanding situations confronted through black ladies in activities.
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Additional info for Sport and the Color Line: Black Athletes and Race Relations in Twentieth Century America
During the first ten years of this period, Chicago experienced a dramatic growth in its black population, from 14,852 to 30,150, an increase of 103 percent. 3 percent. African Americans remained a minority in the Windy City, but their growing numbers made them far more conspicuous, and the large numbers of recent arrivals were pushed to reside in certain areas. In the late 1890s, most Chicago blacks lived in primarily integrated neighborhoods, with only a little more than a quarter residing in precincts in which they were a majority.
18; April 7, 1945, p. 117; December 18, 1954, p. 24. 36. Reid, “Social Conditions,” 114–7, 75. 37. Klein, Social Study, 282. 38. Reid, “Social Conditions,” 75–9. 39. Pittsburgh Courier, May 4, 1951, p. 17; February 2, 1952, p. 19; March 29, 1952, p. 28. 40. Reid, “Social Conditions,” 95–105; Pittsburgh Courier, December 20, 1941, p. 17; June 9, 1945, p. 14. 41. Reid, “Social Conditions,” 13. 42. David Montgomery, “The New Unionism and the Transformation of Workers’ Consciousness in America: 1909–1922,” Journal of Social History (Summer 1974): 511.
They have examined the game’s relationship to white society, analyzed the trials and triumphs of black ballplayers, and extolled the competency of black ballplayers as they confronted racist America. 1 These efforts have dramatically expanded our knowledge, but the writings on black baseball have been somewhat narrow and limited. Most of the emphasis has been on the experience of players and the game on the field. While writers have noted the connection between black baseball and the black community, most of the research, especially in popular works, has neglected to analyze this linkage.