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OK Question 14: What if the order state is not pending? Answer: For error cases where the precondition does not hold, it is normal to assume that the state is not to change. We define an error schema with a precondition that is the negation of one of the preconditions in the InvoiceOrder schema: InvoiceError ΞState id? : OrderId rep! ) = pending rep! = order not pending ΞState ensures that all the dashed state components in the after state are the same as the matching undashed state components in the before state; in this case, stock′ = stock ∧ .
It is a good aim to describe the system being specified in a form such that removal of the formal text would still render an understandable informal document. , for inclusion in a manual or for presentation to a customer). 6 Conclusion Z is mainly used at the specification level. Some data and operation refinement towards an implementation is possible in Z [DER 01], but at some point a jump to code must be made, typically informally. A program is considered correct with respect to a Z specification operation if it can be run in more situations (the precondition is more relaxed) or if it is more deterministic (the postcondition is more strict).
N1 stockMessage! : STOCK MESSAGE prodId? stockLevel + amount? stockLevel + amount? customers′ = customers ∧ orders′ = orders orderProductRel′ = orderProductRel orderCustomerRel′ = orderCustomerRel stockMessage! = stockDeliveryOK The error schema is again a simple negation of preconditions. RECEIVE STOCK ERR ΞSTATE prodId? : PRODUCT ID amount? : N1 stockMessage! : STOCK MESSAGE stockMessage! = if prodId? stockLevel + amount? 1 Case 1 The system has a data structure comprising customers, orders and products.