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By Grujica S. Ivanovich

This outstanding booklet is a distinct perception into the folks all in favour of the improvement of the Salyut house station and the crews assigned to function it. It describes the rotation among the crews, analyses the choice to ship the back-up team on Soyuz eleven and recounts the intrigues and hard relationships among the entire personalities concerned - politicians, CKBEM managers, designers, generals and cosmonauts. Biographies of the Soyuz eleven cosmonauts are released for the 1st time in English and the longest manned area project of the time is defined sooner than Grujica Ivanovich offers a special precis of the main tragic day within the Soviet/Russian manned house software. An research into the reason for the tragic deaths of the Soyuz eleven cosmonauts precedes an outline of the post-Salyut period, exhibiting how the legacy of the 1st area station has survived for many years. the 1st chapters give you the background of the 1st Soviet house station initiatives Almaz, Soyuz-R, MKS and DOS from 1964 to1970 and canopy the choice of DOS-1 crews in 1971, their education and workforce rotations. bankruptcy three launches the Salyut area station with its first team to occupy the 1st house station, whereas bankruptcy four portrays the drama of the Soyuz 10 challenge in April 1971, which didn't dock with Salyut because of a damaged docking probe point, culminating a dramatic evening go back to the Earth. the subsequent chapters describe the kingdom Commissiona's choice to exchange the unique team of Soyuz eleven days sooner than the release in June 1971 and introduce cosmonauts Dobrovolysky, Volkov and Patcayev. The release of Soyuz eleven, its docking with Salyut and the 1st days aboard the gap station are defined in bankruptcy 7 and the fireplace which just about curtailed the undertaking and ended in Dobrovolsky and Volkova's deteriorating dating is then coated. the ultimate phases of the undertaking, together with the issues with the hatch sooner than Soyuz eleven separated from the Salyut area station, are defined prior to the writer information the separation of the orbital and repair modules and the tragic mistake made via the cosmonauts. bankruptcy 10 describes the conventional touchdown of Soyuz eleven, the invention of and makes an attempt to restore the useless cosmonauts. and comprises the 1st interview with one of many rescuers. the writer then demonstrates how specified research came upon that, after separation from the orbital module, the inner strain within the descent module dropped from 920mm to 0 in 112 seconds as a result of untimely starting of 1 of the valves. with out spacesuits, the cosmonauts had purely 15-20 seconds to shut the valve and store their lives. An try through Dobrovolsky unfortunately failed. additional research pointed out various difficulties which contributed to the tragedy, together with the valve know-how, leaking of private defense apparatus, issues of the hatch and omissions in staff education, in addition to confusion among the cosmonauts. The final chapters describe the Post-Salyut period. After 3 unmarried modular stations, in 1986 the USSR introduced the bottom module of the 3rd iteration area station Mir, which has six docking probes. within the following years, Mir grew quickly and used to be prolonged with 5 extra clinical modules to develop into a real area outpost continuously occupied by way of people, the dream of area pioneers. The carrier module Zvezda, a converted Salyut/DOS-1, at the moment serves as a center for the foreign area Station. The ebook ends with stories of all these suffering from the DOS software and the tragedy of the heroic Soyuz eleven workforce and appears ahead to a continuation of the old venture of Salyut.

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Several days after the first meeting between the two engineering teams, Semyonov went to see Chelomey in Reutov. It was a difficult and strained meeting. Although Semyonov was armed with the Kremlin's decree, Chelomey accused the TsKBEM of ``stealing'' his work. 22 22 It was one of these cores which, some 13 months later, was successfully launched as the world's first space station. The first DOS space station and a docked Soyuz ferry: (1) rendezvous antennas; (2) solar panels; (3) radio-telemetry antennas; (4) portholes; (5) the Orion astrophysical telescope; (6) the atmospheric regeneration system; (7) a movie camera; (8) a photo camera; (9) biological research equipment; (10) a food refrigeration unit; (11) crew sleeping bags; (12) water tanks; (13) waste collectors; (14) attitude control engines; (15) propellant tanks for the KTDU-66 main engine; (16) the sanitary and hygienic systems; (17) micrometeoroid panel; (18) exercise treadmill (not shown, but it was aft of the large conical housing for scientific equipment viewing through the floor); (19) the crew's work table; (20) the main control panel; (21) oxygen tanks; (22) the periscope visor of the Soyuz descent module; (23) the KTDU-35 main engine of the Soyuz spacecraft.

He commanded Soyuz 5, which served as the passive target for Soyuz 4. Spacecraft designer Feoktistov had flown as the engineer of the Voskhod mission in 1964. Because Volynov had been backup commander for that mission, he knew Feoktistov well. Patsayev, a rookie TsKBEM cosmonaut-engineer, was to be the research engineer. The fourth crew was to be commanded by Colonel Khrunov, who was a member of the first group of cosmonauts. On his first flight he had launched on Soyuz 5 and, with Yeliseyev, had spacewalked to Soyuz 4 to return to Earth.

It was expected that the gun would be able to hit and destroy a target within five seconds. The great irony was that while the Soviet Union was working on all these military projects, the development of the American MOL had fallen behind schedule, and in 1969 this suffered the same fate as the Dyna-Soar `space plane' by being cancelled shortly before its preliminary test flight. Nevertheless, the Americans had not given up on the idea of a space station. THE CONSPIRACY In contrast to the low priority assigned to the military space station projects at the overcommitted TsKBEM, the Ministry of Defence encouraged the development of Chelomey's Almaz.

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