By Carol Kerven
This assortment lines how pastoralists have coped with the demanding situations of swap in part of the area with a long-tradition of farm animals retaining. Their precarious place - balanced among a industry method the place in basic terms the fittest might continue to exist, and their try to stay a human source for the long run improvement of the usual pastures and cattle - is punctiliously and seriously tested through the individuals. The pastoralists' distinct abilities at handling cattle in a variable and demanding setting, and their skill to provide commodities a lot well-liked suggest that an realizing in their societal place is vital for somebody attracted to transition within the former Soviet Union.
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Additional info for Prospects for Pastoralism in Kazakstan and Turkmenistan: From State Farms to Private Flocks (Central Asia Research Forum)
This left large numbers of former state farm employees with no means of production in environments where other means of livelihood were not feasible. Price decontrol and removal of state orders raised the costs of production while output prices were depressed, leading to a cost–price squeeze for producers from which many never recovered and simply went out of business. In the confusion caused by simultaneous reform laws, uneven application and misappropriation served the interests of well-placed ofﬁcial elites.
31 ILYA I. ALIMAEV ecozones which were much more heavily used in the recent past. These ﬁndings from ﬁeld measurements are comparable to those described in Chapter 4, based on satellite interpretation. However, greater concentration of animals around settlements and water, stemming from a loss of mobility, is having localised damaging effects on pasture productivity. Reorganisation of transhumance in the twentieth century Nomadic and transhumant pastoralists were able to exploit the natural resources of Central Asia’s steppes, deserts and mountains for some three thousand years (Asanov et al.
1993). But the pastoral system of production continued to rely mainly on natural pastures even through the winters (Sneath 1999). Thus, Mongolian pastoralism never became as critically dependent on external inputs as was the case in Kazakstan and Kyrgyzstan where livestock farming had been intensiﬁed over half a century. When external inputs ceased to be supplied and the national economy was in crisis, almost immediately after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Mongolian pastoralists had retained a fairly resilient form of livelihood and could retreat into subsistence following decollectivisation (Pomfret 2000b; Sneath 2000).