By Ulrich Bröckel, Willi Meier, Gerhard Wagner
Covering the total price chain - from product specifications and houses through technique applied sciences and gear to real-world functions - this reference represents a accomplished evaluation of the subject. The editors and majority of the authors are contributors of the ecu Federation of Chemical Engineering, with backgrounds from academia in addition to undefined. accordingly, this multifaceted sector is highlighted from diverse angles: crucial physico-chemical history, most modern dimension and prediction recommendations, and various functions from beauty as much as nutrients industry.
Recommended analyzing for procedure, pharma and chemical engineers, chemists in undefined, and people operating within the pharmaceutical, nutrition, cosmetics, dyes and pigments industries.
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Extra resources for Product Design and Engineering: Formulation of Gels and Pastes
Increasing the particle radius a at constant φ and a constant range of the repulsive colloidal interactions corresponds to a decreasing φ eff . Thus, dispersions with the same φ but different a may exist in different phases. 16 Viscosity as a function of increasing (ﬁlled symbols) and decreasing (open symbols) shear rate for polystyrene/acrylate dispersions with different particle radii measured at ﬁxed particle volume fraction. 4 Rheology of Colloidal Suspensions the shear rate dependent viscosity.
3). However, in this section we will consider an alternative concept of ﬂuidizing dense colloidal dispersions, based on the so-called re-entry glass transition in colloidal dispersions [42–45]. 7), which can be used to make freely ﬂowing but highly concentrated dispersions. 25 shows the viscosity reduction upon addition of a non-adsorbing polymer to an aqueous dispersion of a hard-sphere like polystyrene–(butyl acrylate), P(S-BA), dispersion at a particle volume fraction above the colloidal glass transition .
More recently, Egres and Wagner  investigated systematically the effect of particle anisotropy on shear thickening using a poly(ethylene glycol) based suspensions of acicular precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) particles with aspect ratio varying between 2 and 7. Two important results have been pointed out: the critical volume fraction for the onset of shear thickening decreases with increasing aspect ratio but the critical shear stress σ c is independent of the aspect ratio and follows the scaling laws proposed for hard sphere dispersions with a size corresponding to the minor axis dimension.