By William J. Reese
This quantity examines how grass-root pursuits operated through the early twentieth century to form city schooling within the usa. It explores the way those varied group teams struggled to make neighborhood colleges responsive associations in a time of dramatic swap.
Read Online or Download Power and the Promise of School Reform: Grassroots Movements During the Progressive Era (Reflective History, 9) PDF
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Extra info for Power and the Promise of School Reform: Grassroots Movements During the Progressive Era (Reflective History, 9)
In each of these cities, town boosters and school leaders locked horns with thousands of Catholics who questioned the legitimacy of the evolving public system. In Toledo, for example, the bishop of the local diocese ordered priests to deny the sacraments to any adult Catholic whose children attended the public schools, which used the Protestant Bible in the classroom. Unable to eliminate the power of Protestantism in the schools, Toledo’s Catholics, as those elsewhere, began the slow process of building their own system of private schools.
29 McQuaid’s conflicts with the schools continued in the 1880s, when he assailed “Godless” public education and urged the division of the tax fund. The bishop emphasized that morality for Catholics meant churchcontrolled education and that calling schools “public” did not make them The Origins of Mass Education and the Dawn of Progressivism 15 less Protestant. Superintendent S. A. ” Like so many Victorian educators, Ellis was unwilling to seriously entertain the notion that public schools taught selected moral values that some citizens could legitimately oppose.
22 Growing up was serious business, much too serious to be left to parents who forgot to wind clocks or internalize time discipline completely. And yet, as Superintendent John Dowd of Toledo argued in 1882, adherence to time was essential for personal advancement in the freemarket system: The boy who is found promptly in his place at school for five days in the week, for forty weeks in the year, through a period of from four to seven years, will always be found, when he is through with his school life, at the appointed place, at the appointed time, for the appointed business.