By Joseph La Palombara, Myron Weiner
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Additional resources for Political Parties and Political Development. (SPD-6)
This was the case for the shifting coalitions of the French Fourth Republic even though the shifts occurred within the limits of a broad center rather than from center to extreme left or right. Turnover situations, then, would be those in which, even where there may have been hegemonic periods, there is relatively frequent change in the party that governs or in the party that dominates a coalition. Canada, for example, would be a turnover system, even though the Liberals have been in power for long periods during ORIGIN & DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES the present century.
G. Norway and The Netherlands). Similarly, German industrial development came relatively early and in full force; yet here the lapse into totalitarian dictatorship was the most gruesome ever. Moreover rapid economic development did not save the French Fourth Republic, nor does it stabilize political conditions in Italy. Consequently it will be necessary to probe deeper and to seek for other factors that are often of an historical nature. The main variables on which this paper will center are: (1) the importance of the earlier elite setting; (2) the degree of coincidence or disparity be tween political and economic developments; (3) the "reach" or "permeation" of (democratic) parties as against other power holders in various European societies; and (4) the cleavage lines of the party system itself.
The subtypes which we suggest here are empirically extracted. We offer them not out of any firm conviction that these types satisfy the criteria of neat taxonomic construction but simply because we believe that we might better understand the relationship of parties to political de velopment if we arrange existing patterns within the following categories. III. Tyfes of Party Configurations COMPETITIVE SYSTEMS In many political systems the dominant party or coalition in con trol of government must struggle to maintain power in a competitive atmosphere.