By Farley Mowat
In 1886, the Ihalmiut of northern Canada numbered 7,000 souls; via 1946, while 25-year-old Farley Mowat travelled to the Arctic, their inhabitants had diminished to just forty. dwelling between them, he saw the millennia-old migration of the caribou and persevered the grim winters, nutrition shortages and continuous, devastating intrusions of interlopers bent on exploiting the Arctic. during this seminal ebook, Mowat info a genocide wrought via false impression and forget. Debated lengthy after its booklet, this robust tale of the Ihalmiut keeps to hang-out the Canadian judgment of right and wrong.
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5 Net migration by region in Russia, 1989-2002 Source: Heleniak (2003) (used with permission of the author) the crisis. By 2000, so many had left that Chukotka’s population had dropped by over half, to seventy-five thousand (FSGS 2004), and among the eighty-nine regions of the Russian Federation, only in war-torn Chechnya were living standards worse (“Annual Ranking” 2000). The post-Soviet crisis underlined Chukotka’s marginal position, peripheral to the projects and attentions of the emergent Russia.
In the last three decades of Soviet power – a time of mass settlement in Chukotka – mobility remained a critical diagnostic of power and a mark of modern identity. In the North, and everywhere in Soviet life, classes and communities defined themselves in part by the speed at which they moved. Soviet power may have liquidated the burden of distance in the Russian North, but not for everyone. In the process of assembling a sense of themselves as modernizers, newcomers seized a monopoly on the powers of movement.
In this regard, the notion of “generalized reciprocity” is particularly useful for characterizing the importance of exchange among settlers and for explaining its perpetual quality. Generalized reciprocity describes practices of giving that are on the surface unconditional but that nevertheless set up an expectation of return, albeit delayed, and are presented in a non-commensurate form (Bourdieu 1983). Reciprocity is “generalized” in the sense that participants in a community of exchange may give to one and get from another: there is a sense that what you put in comes back to you in the end.