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By Bronwen Walter

Notions of diaspora are valuable to modern debates approximately 'race', ethnicity, identification and nationalism. but the Irish diaspora, one of many oldest and biggest, is usually excluded at the grounds of 'whiteness'. Outsiders within explores the topics of displacement and the meanings of domestic for those ladies and their descendants. Juxtaposing the visibility of Irish ladies within the usa with their marginalization in Britain, Bronwen Walter demanding situations linear notions of migration and assimilation by way of demonstrating that different types of identity will be held at the same time. In an age while the Northern eire peace technique is swiftly altering worldwide perceptions of Irishness, Outsiders within strikes the empirical learn of the Irish diaspora out of the 'ghetto' of Irish reviews and into the mainstream, tough theorists and policy-makers to concentrate on the problem of white range.

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Third, stereotyping involves violent power relationships. It is not associated simply with difference, but with ‘gross inequalities of power’. Hall (1997) goes on to point out that this is a symbolic power exercised through control of representational practices. These practices have a wide range of effects, including social positioning and economic exploitation, as well as physical coercion. 24 Outsiders Inside However there is not a simple, one-way relationship between the dominant and dominated groups.

Data collected from emigrant counts in Ireland and census enumerations at destinations suggest that over 80 per cent of those leaving Ireland eventually crossed the Atlantic. However there was considerable underenumeration of those travelling to Britain, as O’Grada (1973) has demonstrated. This ‘missing million’ Irish-born people in Britain would reduce the overwhelming dominance of North America in the flow, though by no means remove it. The peak decade for Irish entry to the United States was 1851–60, the immediate aftermath of the Famine, when 914,119 Irish-born people were recorded as entering directly, 35 per cent of the total immigration volume.

These practices have a wide range of effects, including social positioning and economic exploitation, as well as physical coercion. 24 Outsiders Inside However there is not a simple, one-way relationship between the dominant and dominated groups. The line between them is less sharply drawn than the stereotype suggests. On the one hand the dominant group has ambivalent feelings, mirroring the splitting process, and thus also exhibits envy and desire (Pajaczkowska and Young 1992). On the other hand the dominated group becomes part of the hegemony; as Ashis Nandy (1983: 2) points out, colonialism ‘includes codes which both the rulers and ruled can share’.

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