By Belén Riveiro, Mercedes Solla
Non-destructive applied sciences have received reputation lately on the topic of the projects related to characterization and analysis of structures. the appliance of geomatics in development engineering arises from the need of utilizing genuine geometry in numerous levels of the development and assessment methods. This booklet offers an outline and updated synthesis of the formerly pointed out innovations to the sector of civil engineering and contains issues on the subject of infrastructure and constructions. Literature dedicated to conception, uncomplicated basics, and functions of those applied sciences has been compiled to teach the possibility of such tools
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Extra resources for Non-destructive techniques for the evaluation of structures and infrastructure
Reverse Engineering is of great importance under the strategies of sustainable development, which in the case of Civil Engineering, will permit to know the current state of infrastructures and thus, propose measures towards the elongation of the service life of existing infrastructures. Thus, operations such as periodic inventory, routine inspection, deformation monitoring, etc. are essential in order to monitor and evaluate the behavior of infrastructures throughout their service life. 2 Chapter Structure In light of the above, our aim in this chapter is to present the basics for laser scanning technology, as well as summarize the evolution of the technology in recent years.
Particularly, these scanners also known as terrestrial laser scanners (TLS), have mirrors that direct the laser in the vertical plane to measure elevation angles (rotation around horizontal axis), while rotation around a vertical axis may be done through another mirror or a mechanism computing Azimuth angles. These mirrors can rotate at a very high speed; normally a prism that rotates 360◦ . As a result, a very dense point cloud is obtained in a spherical coordinate system. Most of the scanners automatically convert spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates (X, Y, Z) for each single point, and some other attributes such as amplitude of the laser beam or RGB data.
In general, the contents of the technologies and experiences presented in this book are postulated around two main aspects: accurate geometric characterization in 2D, 3D and 4D, as well as documenting the non-visible parts of structures (geometrically and materials). When constructions need to be evaluated from the point of view of engineering, many restrictions hamper obtaining accurate and realistic analysis. Among others, the main aspects that characterize the engineering evaluation of built up constructions are: • • • Complex geometry.