By Donald E. Knuth

MMIX is a RISC laptop designed by means of Don Knuth to demonstrate machine-level elements of programming. within the author's ebook sequence "The artwork of desktop Programming", MMIX replaces the 1960s-style computing device combine. a selected target within the layout of MMIX was once to maintain its desktop language uncomplicated, based, and straightforward to benefit. while, all the complexities had to in achieving excessive functionality in perform are taken into account.

This ebook constitutes a set of courses written in CWEB that make MMIX a digital truth. between different utilities, an assembler changing MMIX symbolic documents to MMIX items and simulators executing the courses in given item records are supplied. the newest model of all courses will be downloaded from MMIX's domestic web page. The ebook presents a whole documentation of the MMIX laptop and its meeting language. It additionally offers mini-indexes, which make the courses a lot more straightforward to understand.

A corrected reprint of the ebook has been released in August 2014, changing the model of 1999.

**Read Online or Download MMIXware: A RISC Computer for the Third Millennium PDF**

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**Example text**

The family H of hollow stack polyominoes forms a polyomino class with p-basis given by: Rectangles with rectangular holes. Let R be the class of polyominoes obtained from a rectangle by removing sets of cells which have themselves a rectangular shape, and such that there is no more than one connected set of 0’s for each row and column. The family R can easily be proved to be a polyomino class, and moreover: Fig. 8. A rectangle with rectangular holes Proposition 9. The class R can be described by the avoidance of the patterns: ⎡ ⎤ 0 00 00 01 10 0 1 0 , ⎣1⎦ .

If we notice N d (l) the maximal number of hypercubes crossed by a curve of length l in dimension d, then N d (l) ≥ 2d−2 N 2 (l) which makes d l hypercubes crossed by an hyperdiagonal more hypercubes than the 2d + 2√−1 d path. 4 With Other Distances With L1 norm instead of Euclidean norm for the length of the curve, the expressions of N (l) and L(n) are quite straightforward. We just have to notice that following the curve, new squares appear each time that a line x = i or y = j is 24 Y. G´erard and A.

20 Y. G´erard and A. Vacavant √ √ – If 2mod 2 ≤ l mod 2 < 1 and l > 1, then N (l) = 3 √l 2 + 5 (optimal curves have − 1 diagonal steps and 2 horizontal or vertical steps). If √ 2 − 2 ≤ l < 1, we have still N (l) = 4 (the ﬁrst step of the staircase is broken). √ – If 1 ≤ l mod 2, then N (l) = 3 √l2 + 6 (optimal curves have √l2 diagonal steps and 1 horizontal or vertical step). √l 2 Conversely, function L(n) is: – – – – L(1) = L(2) = L(3) = L(4) = 0, L(5) = 1. √ If n mod3 = 0 (and n ≥ 6), then L(n) = 1 + ( n3 − 2) 2.