Download Methods of Working Coal and Metal Mines. Planning and by Seth D. Woodruff PDF

By Seth D. Woodruff

Tools of operating Coal and steel Mines, quantity three discusses the extraction of mineral deposits, which consists of the riding of improvement openings, from the skin or a principal shaft, to the “block out” parts of the deposit.
This ebook is split into 3 components. half A describes the coal mining equipment, which come with pillar mining structures and long-wall mining. Economics of coal face mechanization is usually mentioned. partly B, the category of stoping structures, that's made out of pillar-supported stopes, bushes and fill supported stopes, and cutting or caving platforms, is elaborated. This half additionally emphasizes the mining bedded metalliferous ores, in addition to the prices and different components affecting the alternative of mining structures. half C deliberates the outside mining tools, which encompass strip mining of coal, open-pit mining, and balance of pit slopes.
This book is meant for mining engineers, yet can be helpful to scholars and researchers carrying out paintings at the software of extracting and processing minerals.

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Coal drills are usually of the auger type rather than the percussion type as used in hard rock mining operations and they may be powered by electricity, compressed air, or may be operated from the hydraulic system of a mining machine. (3) Charging and shooting. Holes may be charged with an explosive or with a mechanical device which releases compressed air or carbon dioxide to break the coal. (4) Loading coal. Formerly all broken coal was loaded by hand into railmounted cars. The efficiency of loading was improved when conveyors were introduced.

However, several recent installations of fully mechanized long-wall systems have given very high p r o d u c t i o n rates (see p p . 187, 239). Handworked Long-wall Originally all long-walls were h a n d w o r k e d with the coal being holed (cut) and drilled by hand labor, shot, and then h a n d loaded into cars running on tracks located just behind the face for transport t o the loader gate. In firm coal it is necessary that a slot be cut back underneath the seam in order that the coal will settle and fracture.

Belts used in mainline transportation show a trend away from the rigid frame construction to the rope type. TABLE 10. N U M B E R OF UNDERGROUND BITUMINOUS COAL A N D LIGNITE MINES A N D N U M B E R 1 6 OF H A U L A G E U N I T S I N USE I N THE U N I T E D S T A T E S , I N SELECTED Y E A R S * ) * UnderYear g r o u n d mines Trolley B a t - Other tery t y p e s 1924 7352 1946 5888 1 2 , 7 6 5 t 1515 14,110 1001 1948 7108 14,617 904 Gathering and haulStaage C a b l e BatPortTotal tion- Total conreel tery able ary veyors Rope-haulage units Locomotives Total 649 443 14,723 110 15,231 4084 1009 5093 74 15,595 3886 1044 4930 ΐ î Shuttle cars î î ΐ î t ΐ i ΐ î î Animals 36,352 457 10,185 755 10,834 1949 6798 14,090 928 59 15,077 3904 1073 4977 2144 623 2767 860 10,313 1950 7559 13,822 949 62 14,833 4225 1037 5262 2872 512 3294 1013 10,033 1951 6225 13,327 900 51 14,278 3875 916 4791 3191 567 3758 1094 7478 1952 5632 12,545 812 41 13,398 3584 852 4436 3382 462 3844 1066 6555 1953 5034 11,311 678 45 12,034 2838 727 3565 3797 425 4222 1042 5354 1954 4653 10,155 762 38 10,955 1926 781 2707 4400 431 4831 1081 5409 1955 6035 9538 658 40 10,236 1327 577 1904 4375 239 4614 1002 6440 861 102 10,408 1420 575 1995 4757 257 5014 1114 6097 6542 9445 1957 6512 8997 898 138 10,033 1214 616 1830 5129 257 5386 1233 5054 1958 6319 8057 920 138 9115 926 538 1464 4871 259 5130 1235 4678 1959 5815 7263 949 137 8349 900 504 1404 4795 255 5050 1416 4063 1960 1961 5989 5843 6922 946 583 173 8041 892 510 1402 3503 7107 § § 236 4958 182 4 8 6 9 1566 162 4722 4687 1635 § 1956 6362 § * Exclusive o f lignite and Virginia semianthracite m i n e s in 1946, 1948, and 1949.

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