By Mark Cichocki RN
This useful advisor deals a wealth of data for many who were clinically determined with HIV and for individuals taking care of HIV optimistic buddies and household. It covers the complete HIV lifespan, from prevention to prognosis and past. helpful assistance support the reader make the easiest determination whilst selecting a physician, discovering and adhering to the suitable drugs routine, and, if priceless, making end-of-life plans. All facets of HIV/AIDS are mentioned, together with opportunistic and linked infections, dental care, workout and nutrients, substance use and abuse, and emotional therapy.
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Oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly will weaken a condom and should never be used. • Because it increases friction, two condoms should not be worn at the same time. • An erect penis can leak pre-seminal ﬂuid (precum) before ejaculation. This ﬂuid can contain HIV. For this reason, condoms must be applied prior to any sexual contact. • Condoms must be removed and discarded immediately after ejaculation. Never reuse a condom. 2. HIV Prevention and Testing 25 • For those people with latex allergies, non-latex, polyurethane condoms can be used.
This result is neither positive nor negative. If a sample is indeterminant, and if the person being tested has HIV risk factors or has a known HIV exposure, another test should be performed in six to twelve weeks. • Indirect Immunoﬂuorescence Assay (IFA): The IFA testing method is seldom used but acts as a conﬁrmatory test, much like the Western Blot. Faster than a Western Blot, labs sometimes use the IFA when the speed in which results are obtained is an issue. WHEN NEGATIVE ISN’T NEGATIVE At ﬁrst glance, a negative Western Blot test means that there is no HIV infection.
As part of this fusing, a fusion pore develops, creating a “tunnel” between the virus and the CD4 cell. It’s through this “tunnel” that the HIV genetic material enters the healthy CD4 cell. THE UNCOATING In order for HIV to use its genetic material (RNA) for reproduction, the protective coating surrounding the RNA strand must be dissolved. Not much is known about this step, but one thing is certain — without this step, conversion of HIV RNA to DNA can’t take place, and replication is halted. REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION Once in the cell, the single-stranded HIV RNA must be converted to double-stranded DNA.