By Luis Carlos Gonzalez ; revision de Eddie Echandi.
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Extra info for Introduccion a la fitopatologia
Vegetable producers are also encouraged to use alternatives to pesticides, or a combination of tactics, rather than depending solely on insecticides for their pest suppression needs. They attempt to integrate pest management practices such as using cultural practices which limit pest potential, with careful monitoring of pest abundance, and application of selective insecticides only when it is necessary. Pest Management Practices There are numerous types of practices that can be implemented to protect a crop from pests, or to eliminate pests that have invaded.
The head appears to protrude forward, providing the basis for the ``snout moth'' designation, though it is enlarged mouthparts (labial palps) that account for the extension. Because of their manner of holding the wings when at rest, pyralid moths generally have a Family SphingidaeÐHawk Moths and Hornworms Family TortricidaeÐLeafrollers and Borers The tortricid moths generally are small, but range from 10±35 mm in wingspan. They are obscure moths, usually mottled brown or gray. The larvae often roll leaves or bore into plant tissue, and many are main plant pests.
No single practice is effective for all pest problems, though insecticides come closest to being universally suitable. Unfortunately, the bene®ts of insecticide use are sometimes offset by health or environmental hazards. Biological Control. The use of natural enemies to suppress pest insects is one of the oldest and most effective approaches known. Although using natural organisms to our advantage is highly desirable, it is often dif®cult to implement and the outcome is dif®cult to predict. Biological control tends to work best when the pest species is an invader from another region, and is maintained at a low or moderate level of abundance in its native land by natural enemies.