By Ka-ho Mok
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Additional resources for Intellectuals and the State in Post-Mao China
For instance, elite initiatives were manifested in the targeting of 'capitalist roaders', the organization and leadership of factional bands in the Anti-Rightist Campaign, Socialist Education, Four Clean Campaign and the Red Guard activities. As Dittmer (1994, p. 136) observed, these were elite initiates but 'played out in a context of considerable mass spontaneity'. In this regard, the Party elite orchestrated many mass social movements behind the scenes (Schurmann, 1968; Townsend, 1969). With such a yundong tradition, the Democracy Wall Movement and subsequent movements were set off.
Hu Yaobang was supported and regarded as the patron of the students and intellectuals because Hu was sympathetic to intellectuals and thus his death was lamented by them. The students and intellectuals regarded the loss of Hu as a possible symbol of the decline of the pro-democracy movement. 9 The death of Hu was not only a great loss to the country but also an obstruction to democracy in China. 10 Their outcry for reevaluation of the 'anti-bourgeois liberalization' goes hand in hand with the quest for the rehabilitation of Hu.
Other students in Zhongshan Medical College also petitioned for better salaries on graduation and improved job allocation. Students at Shenzhen University demonstrated against the imposition of tuition and residence fees based on their academic performance (Kwong, 1988, p. 979; The Nineties, January 1987, pp. 17-18). All in all, most of the issues which the students raised did relate closely to inconveniences and annoyances in their campus lives. What they protested against seems to suggest that they were fighting for their personal existence rather than for politics at large (Stavis, 1987).