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Extra resources for HR5111 - Illegal Immigration Enforcement and Social Security Protection Act of 2004
Com. Tap-Tap and Pay (TTP): Preventing the Maﬁa Attack in NFC Payment 23 pay for something more expensive. Figure 1 shows an example of such an attack. This attack has been shown to be feasible in . Unlike simple relay attacks, the Maﬁa attack cannot be prevented by using a protective shield or an activation button since the user consciously initiates the payment. For the same reason, various user-movement-based unlocking mechanisms [18,30,32,37] cannot stop the attack either. We will explain the current countermeasures to this attack by ﬁrst reviewing the NFC payment standards and speciﬁcations.
Challenge card 2. response card = (challenge, acc card, . )key 3. response card, acc reader 4. result Fig. 2. 1 Our Solution: Tap-Tap and Pay (TTP) Threat Model We assume a user consciously initiates an NFC payment against a legitimatelooking NFC reader without realizing that it is a malicious one controlled by the Maﬁa. The diﬀerence between the malicious reader and the legitimate reader is that the former is not connected to the back-end banking network while the latter is. We assume the Maﬁa does not want to directly connect to the banking network, as that will run the risk of being caught by the bank.
3 M. Mehrnezhad et al. , the reader is connected to the banking network, so that the backend system is able to evaluate the received measurements and authorize the payment in real-time. The same assumption is made in other researchers’ solutions [22, 33,38] (which we will detail in Sect. 5). However in practice, an NFC transaction may be performed oﬄine. According to the EMV speciﬁcations, an EMV transaction ﬂow includes several steps including oﬄine data authentication and online transaction authorisation.