By Konstantin S Nossov, Konstantin Nossov, Brian Delf
Within the moment half the 3rd millennium BC the Indo-European tribe often called the Hittites migrated and settled in principal Anatolia, at the moment a land of small city-states whose rulers lived in fortresses. those fortifications enabled the Hittites to rework themselves right into a Bronze Age super-power defeating the Egyptians at Kadesh in c.1274 BC. Konstantin Nossov examines the fortifications developed through the Hittites of their efforts to maintain after which halt the decline in their as soon as flourishing empire. delivering an in-depth anatomy of the fortresses, targeting the foremost websites of the central urban Hattusha in addition to websites at Alacah_y_k and Karatepe, with full-color reconstructions, this can be an fascinating glimpse into the historical past of an empire which at its top rivalled the Egyptians and Assyrians. It concludes with an exam of those websites as they continue to exist this present day, details that would entice either fans and travelers traveling the realm.
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Extra info for Hittite fortifications, c.1650-700 BC
The extent of the pond is shown by the line of stones forming the edge. Its bottom, however, was unpaved and only covered with a watertight layer of clay. The pond was at least 2m deep. A small artificial pond near Alacah6yuk formed after the construction of a dam. The stone dam that can be seen in the distance is one of over 10 built by the Hittite King Tudhaliya IV in the 1230s Be to save the country from drought. A canal connected the pond with the city and supplied its water for everyday needs.
Steep slopes on all around its perimeter make it an ideal place to put a citadel. The site was populated as far back as the 3rd millennium BC, but it was the Hittites who gradually turned it into a well-fortified citadel with a royal residence. The architectural remains that can be observed here today mostly date from the period of the Hittite Empire (late 13th century BC) with some later (mainly Phrygian) additions. Biiyiikkale is now reached by a stairway on the south-western side of the citadel.
Neither of the chambers with reliefs was ever roofed but remained open to the sky. The Yazilikaya Sanctuary probably served as a place for the celebration of the arrival of the Hittite New Year each spring. Yazilikaya was an unfortified sanctuary. There were, however, also fortified sanctuaries. For example, Gavurkalesi ('the castle of infidels') was fortified with a cyclopean wall. Today most scholars believe that the Gavurkalesi complex served religious purposes, though it used to be considered a king's tomb.