By Karen Bauer
This publication explores how medieval and glossy Muslim spiritual students ('ulamā') interpret gender roles in Qur'ānic verses on felony testimony, marriage, and human production. mentioning those verses, medieval students built more and more complicated legislation and interpretations upholding a male-dominated gender hierarchy; points in their interpretations impact non secular norms and kingdom legislation in Muslim-majority international locations this present day, but different elements were discarded totally. Karen Bauer lines the evolution in their interpretations, exhibiting how they've been followed, tailored, rejected, or changed through the years, through evaluating the Qur'ān with a variety of Qur'ānic commentaries and interviews with well-known non secular students from Iran and Syria. now and then, culture is changed in unforeseen methods: realized ladies argue opposed to gender equality, or Grand Ayatollahs reject sayings of the Prophet, mentioning technological know-how as an alternative. This cutting edge and interesting learn highlights the consequences of social and highbrow contexts at the formation of culture, and on glossy responses to it.
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Extra info for Gender Hierarchy in the Qur'ān: Medieval Interpretations, Modern Responses
The story received widespread national and international media coverage. It fascinated the nation and the world for many reasons; but one of the most controversial aspects of the case within Pakistan is one of the least reported by international papers: it had to be tried as terrorism, rather than rape, for Mukhtar Mai’s own testimony to be accepted. At the time when the case was brought, rape was counted as ‘forced adultery’ in Pakistan’s laws and was tried according to the court’s interpretation of the Islamic law on adultery.
46 The jurists who held the doctrine of acceptance of human reasoning in some form were called Usūlīs. 2. Akhbārism, which developed as a response to Usūlī ̣ doctrine, is a school of thought more akin to the mainstream Sunnī model. 47 This doctrine may have developed in the 17th century with the work of Muh ̣ammad Amīn Astarābādī (d. 48 In a nutshell, Usūlīs ̣ accept the use of ʿaql as a means of deriving the law, and even as a source of law; Akhbārīs, on the whole, reject it. 45 Ibid. , p. 4. , chart on p.
It may be impossible to account for everything that inﬂuences interpretation, but I would propose a general model that accounts for the ﬂuidity of the venture of interpretation. 3, the Qurʾān, ḥadīth, and legal school/precedent have been joined by an exegete’s individual reasoning, genre constraints, social custom/common sense/ethical considerations, and recourse to rational or scientiﬁc proofs. 3, the mechanism of interpretation is not ﬁxed and static: it is dependent on many factors. An interpreter’s theoretical approach matters, but it is not the only determinant of interpretation.