By Marc Joye, Michael Tunstall
Within the Nineteen Seventies researchers spotted that radioactive debris produced through components certainly found in packaging fabric can cause bits to turn in delicate parts of digital chips. learn into the impact of cosmic rays on semiconductors, a space of specific curiosity within the aerospace undefined, resulted in equipment of hardening digital units designed for harsh environments. eventually numerous mechanisms for fault construction and propagation have been came upon, and specifically it used to be famous that many cryptographic algorithms succumb to so-called fault assaults. fighting fault assaults with out sacrificing functionality is nontrivial and this is often the topic of this ebook. half I bargains with side-channel research and its relevance to fault assaults. The chapters partially II hide fault research in mystery key cryptography, with chapters on block ciphers, fault research of DES and AES, countermeasures for symmetric-key ciphers, and countermeasures opposed to assaults on AES. half III bargains with fault research in public key cryptography, with chapters devoted to classical RSA and RSA-CRT implementations, elliptic curve cryptosystems and countermeasures utilizing fault detection, units resilient to fault injection assaults, lattice-based fault assaults on signatures, and fault assaults on pairing-based cryptography. half IV examines fault assaults on circulation ciphers and the way faults engage with countermeasures used to avoid strength research assaults. ultimately, half V comprises chapters that designate how fault assaults are applied, with chapters on fault injection applied sciences for microprocessors, and fault injection and key retrieval experiments on a widespread assessment board. this is often the 1st ebook in this subject and should be of curiosity to researchers and practitioners engaged with cryptographic engineering.
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Additional info for Fault Analysis in Cryptography (Information Security and Cryptography)
DFA exploits the difference between C and C in order to infer information on the secret key. The original attack described by Biham and Shamir in  assumes that one bit of the right half of the DES internal state is flipped at a random position during some round in the faulty encryption. We detail hereafter this attack when the fault occurs at the beginning of either the 16th or the 15th round. Notation: In the following, L r and Rr will respectively denote the corrupted value of the left part L r and the right part Rr at the end of the rth round and C = (L 16 , R16 ) will denote the faulty ciphertext.
4 Extension to Early Rounds Based on a Decryption Oracle If an attacker has access to a decryption oracle then the attacks presented so far can be employed to exploit errors occurring in the early rounds of the cipher. In fact, the attacker may obtain a faulty ciphertext C from a plaintext P by inducing a fault at the end of the first round. The plaintext P can then be viewed as the faulty result of a decryption of C for which a fault has been induced at the beginning of the last round.
Also, the two secret encodings P1 and P2 ensure that inputs to and outputs from E cannot be known by an attacker, so physical attacks requiring this knowledge should not be feasible. A particular case studied by Clavier  depicted in Fig. 1 considers E instantiated as the DES function. Despite the impossibility of applying classical DFA , 28 C. Clavier Fig. 1 A DES obfuscated by secret layers P1 and P2 which needs the output of the block cipher, and CFA , described in Sect. 3, which needs the control of the DES input, the author devised an ineffective fault analysis which recovers the secret key and applies to any member of the large class of unknown (to the attacker) cryptographic functions.