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By Marian Lazar

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1998) found the wave flux density as FW = 4. 9 × 105 ergcm-2 s-1 which is high enough for the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) process to be a good candidate for heating the coronal hole. Less understood is the mechanism of the generation of the ion cyclotron waves in coronal holes. Generation of resonant ICW may be possible by stochastic magnetic foot point motions, magnetic reconnections and MHD filamentation instabilities or from MHD turbulent cascade. This latter mechanism is supposed to be the dominant one producing ICW that heat the coronal hole plasma and accelerate the solar wind particles (Cranmer, 2000).

Recent reports have claimed that the Alfv´en waves observed in the low solar atmosphere can provide an energy flux sufficient to heat the corona (De Pontieu, 2007; Jess et al. , 2009), but Alfv´en waves, which are linearly polarized waves at a much lower frequency than ion gyrofrequencies, do not directly interact with the core ions. They need an intermediary process to convert this energy flux to a form that can heat the coronal ions efficiently. One possible energy transfer is the production and subsequent damping of ICWs (e.

Viscosity, thermal conductivity, ion-neutral friction, or electrical resistivity). Extended corona is the region where the primary solar wind acceleration occurs. The vast majority of proposed physical processes involve the transfer of energy from propagating magnetic fluctuations(waves, shocks, or turbulence to the particles. )The ultimate source of energy must be solar in origin ,and thus it must some how propagate out to the distances where the heating occurs(Tu and Marsch,1995). At distances greater than 2 to 3 R0, the 32 Exploring the Solar Wind proton temperature gradient is noticeably shallower than that expected from pure adiabatic expansion (Barnes et al.

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