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By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Committee on the Engineering Challenges to the Long-Term Operation of the International Spa

The overseas house Station (ISS) is really a world project. The venture is being led through the USA, with the participation of Japan, the eu house organization, Canada, Italy, Russia, and Brazil. Russia is partaking in complete partnership with the U.S. within the fabrication of ISS modules, the meeting of ISS components on orbit, and, after meeting has been accomplished, the daily operation of the station. development of the ISS begun with the release of the Russian Zarya module in November 1998 via the release of the U.S. solidarity module in December 1998. the 2 modules have been mated and interconnected via the team of the gap commute throughout the December flight, and the 1st assembled section of the ISS was once in position. development will proceed with the supply of parts and meeting on orbit via a sequence of forty six deliberate flights. through the research interval, the meeting entire milestone was once scheduled for November 2004 with the ultimate ISS building flight supplying the U.S. Habitation Module.

Engineering demanding situations to the long term Operation of the overseas area Station is a research of the engineering demanding situations posed through longterm operation of the ISS. This file states that the nationwide Aeronautics and house management (NASA) and the ISS builders have concentrated virtually primarily on finishing the layout and improvement of the station and finishing its meeting in orbit. This record addresses the problems and possibilities regarding long term operations.

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Propulsion module design requirements. NASA believes that a deorbiting mission must have at least a 99-percent reliability. The committee believes that even this reliability level would not meet NASA’s safety goal of a less than a 1 in 10,000 chance of a casualty. Recommendation. End-of-life disposal should be accomplished by a controlled deorbiting of the International Space Station. Sufficient onboard propulsion must be provided for this operation. S. propulsion module to provide the required deorbiting capability.

February, 1999. Houston, Texas: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center. , 1999. ISS Software. Presentation by B. Panter, Manager, Avionics Integration Office, International Space Station Program, to the Committee on the Engineering Challenges to the Long-Term Operation of the International Space Station, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, March 25, 1999. 28 6 End-of-Life Disposal At some point in the future, the ISS will have to be decommissioned, deorbited, and returned to Earth.

Future HEDS (Human Exploration and Development of Space) initiatives, and solar system exploration missions, will also benefit from remotely operated robotic systems that can perform external inspections, servicing, maintenance, and repair. For unmanned missions, robotic servicing will be the only option. Recommendation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration should use the International Space Station (ISS) as a technology test bed for advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) systems, including robotic systems to support long-term ISS operations and future space missions.

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