By Paul Weissman, Lucy-Ann McFadden, Torrence Johnson
9 years has handed because the 1992 moment version of the encyclopedia was once released. This thoroughly revised 3rd version, that's a school point compendium of chemistry, molecular biology, arithmetic, and engineering, is refreshed with quite a few articles approximately present study in those fields. for instance, the hot variation has an elevated emphasis on info processing and biotechnology, reflecting the quick progress of those parts. the ongoing Editor-in-Chief, Robert Meyers, and the Board ready a brand new topical define of actual technology and know-how to outline entire assurance. part editors are both Nobel Laureates or editors of key journals of their fields. extra Board contributors representing the worldwide medical group have been additionally recruited.
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In Eq. (41) an inverse fourth-power dependence of the comet’s brightness on r is assumed. Since the coma activities and surface properties of a comet could have strong effects on its brightness variation, it is by no means certain that Eq. (41) can be applied to all cases. Comprehensive surveys of distant comets at large solar distances (>3 AU), where the outgassing process generally ceases, are urgently needed to improve our knowledge in this aspect. 16 for m > 1014 kg. In comparison, the main-belt asteroids have a mass distribution given by N (m) α m −1 .
Once this happens, a burst of comets will be injected into the solar system that would last a few million years. During this interval, the flux of new comets could be strongly enhanced in comparison to the steady-state injection rate from the outer Oort cloud. Such a transient phenomenon is called a comet shower. Records of biological mass extinctions show that a certain periodicity (≈26 Myr) may be identified. Several lines of evidence (for example, the iridium enrichment at the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary) have seemed to indicate that mass extinctions of this sort could be related to catastrophic impact events by either comets or asteroids of kilometer size.
And Sharpton, V. , eds. (1994). Large meteorite impacts and planetary evolution. Geol. Soc. Am. Special Paper 293. Grieve, R. A. , and Therriault, A. (2000). Vredefort, Sudbury, Chicxulub: Three of a kind? Ann. Rev. Earth Planet Sci. 28, 305– 338. Holsapple, K. A. (1993). The scaling of impact processes in planetary sciences. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet Sci. 21, 333–373. Mark, K. (1987). “Meteorite Craters,” Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. McKinnon, W. , Chapman, C. , and Housen, K. R. (1991).