By Alexandru Grigorescu
This paintings posits that, over the last centuries, democratic norms have unfold from family politics to intergovernmental businesses (IGOs). Grigorescu explores how norms formed IGO decision-making principles resembling these using country participation, balloting, entry to details, and the position of NGOs and transnational parliaments. The examine emphasizes the function of "normative pressures" (the interplay among norm energy and the measure to which the established order strays from norm prescriptions). utilizing fundamental and secondary assets to evaluate the plausibility of its arguments throughout centuries and dozen IGOs, the learn specializes in advancements in League of countries, foreign hard work association, United countries, international financial institution, eu Union, and global alternate association
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Additional resources for Democratic intergovernmental organizations? : normative pressures and decision-making rules
They travel across states and levels of governance because they are not precise and are applicable to different entities and situations. Pressure, on the other hand, only affects a specific case when it is perceived that something is truly inappropriate in a given situation. For that reason, normative pressure is dictated not only by how powerful the norm is but also by how actors interpret its application to the case at hand. The distinction between the concepts of strength and pressure follows the analogous one in physics, from which we, social scientists, have borrowed the terms.
This is especially important as past practices shape actors’ expectations regarding the new institutions. For example, the initial attempt to establish an exclusive League of Nations Council, in which only five powerful states would be represented, was seen as a case of a new rule straying from what the fair participation norm dictated. This was in great part a result of the practices of the previous century when formal IGOs, even if they were technical in nature, were always inclusive. Similarly, in 1945, when the UNSC was established, it was considered to stray substantially from what the norm of fair voting prescribed because all previous IGOs had either accepted equal voting (as in the League and ILO) or weighted voting, but did not accept a differentiated veto system.
Realism, the dominant theoretical approach to the field for many decades, has explained IGOs and their rules as reflections of the material power structures (Mearsheimer 1994). Other rationalist approaches emphasized the role of additional factors, beyond power, in explaining the rules of such organizations. , Keohane 1984; Krasner 1983). , Koremenos, Lispon, and Snidal 2004). Several other bodies of literature, ranging from international law to economics, have exhibited an interest in the impact of norms on human behavior for some time.