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By Adnan Tamime

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2005). The glass transition temperature of lactose-containing milk powders is similar to that of pure lactose, which indicates the importance of lactose in determining the physical state of these powders (Jouppila & Roos, 1994). During preparation of powders containing high levels of lactose, seed crystals of α-lactose monohydrate are added to the concentrate before drying to enable the anhydrous α-lactose to convert to the crystalline monohydrate form before the drying stage. This decreases the risk of caking or clumping in the powder during storage, caused by the conversion of the anhydrous form to the crystalline form.

2003) reported that lipolysis catalysed by bacterial lipase can occur in whole milk powder (WMP) with a moisture content of <3 g 100 g−1 . They found levels of short-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) in a powder stored for 2 weeks at 37◦ C, which exceeded the flavour threshold in the reconstituted milk. Changes to proteins during storage can have marked effects on the properties of some dried dairy products. For example, the solubility of MPC powders decreases with storage time, particularly at elevated temperatures, and can vary widely, between 32% and 98%.

4, as the lactose:protein ratio increases, there is no a proportional increase in the lactose content on the surface of the powder. This suggests that the lactose migrates to the surface slower than protein and fat. Shrestha et al. (2007) reported that increases in lactose concentration in SMP significantly increased the water adsorption in milk powders and also lowered the water activity range at which the crystallisation occurred. 1 Heat stability The major issue associated with concentration and drying of milk is the heat stability of the concentrated milk during sterilisation processes, in-container or UHT, and the heat stability of the powders when reconstituted.

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