By Frank Blasinger
his paintings is meant to be of useful tips up to speed engineering expertise. the writer of this booklet is Frank Blasinger it's going to assist you to choose and arrange an appropriate controller for numerous functions.
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Additional info for Control Engineering: A Guide for Beginners
In addition, controllers with a rising characteristic (direct operating sense) are used for certain processes. For instance, the manipulating variable in a cooling process must decrease as the process value increases. 04 3 Continuous controllers Fig. 2. 2 Permanent deviation and working point A P controller only produces a manipulating variable when there is a control deviation, as we already know from the controller equation. This means that the manipulating variable becomes zero when the process variable reaches the setpoint.
The temperature will fall, and, as the deviation increases, the controller will deliver a higher manipulating variable, corresponding to the XP band. A temperature will be reached here, at which the controller produces the exact value of manipulating variable required to maintain that temperature. The temperature reached, and the corresponding manipulating variable, can be read off from the point of intersection of the controller characteristic and the static process characteristic: in this case, a temperature of 150°C with a manipulating variable of 40%.
Permanent control deviation y/% Controller characteristic Setpoint w 100 50 40 X P = 100 °C 150 200 100 400 300 T / °C T / °C Static process characteristic 400 200 25 75 50 y/% 100 Working point correction y/% W 100 WP 50 50 100 150 200 250 300 T / °C Fig. 04 3 Continuous controllers It is clear that in a furnace, for instance, a certain level of power must be supplied in order to reach and maintain a particular setpoint. So it makes no sense to set the manipulating variable to zero when there is no control deviation.