By Johann Eekhoff, Christiane Moch (auth.), Johann Eekhoff (eds.)
1 via Karel Van Miert because the early years of the eu group, pageant coverage has performed a decisive function within the construction of a extra filthy rich, aggressive and built-in eu economic system. over the past 40 years, the motion of eu festival specialists has supplied a variety of examples of the advantages of a sound-working pageant atmosphere for shoppers and for the eu economic climate as an entire. pageant brings reduce costs, fosters technical growth and creativity, and forestalls the unwanted effects of a firm abusing its dominant or monopoly place. in the course of my mandate as a Commissioner answerable for pageant, i've got actively inspired this strengthening of ecu festival coverage as did my predecessors. therefore, there was transforming into public wisdom in Europe of the necessity at no cost and reasonable festival in addition to the consolidation of the contest coverage within the "acquis communautaire". ecu festival coverage is now at a tuming turning element in its heritage. In may well 2004, ten nations will subscribe to a brand new eu Union composed of twenty-five Member States and 450 million humans. this large accession to the ecu is of paramount significance to the ecu integration and may deeply effect on eu festival policy.
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Policymakers tend to impose measures with a two-fold effect on the environment: revenues from the pollution tax are used to subsidise production of a similar good which is produced polIution without creating such a high level of pollution (cross-subsidisation). An example of cross-subsidisation is a government which places a tax on electric energy produced by buming burning fossil fuel, and use the tax revenues collected to subsidise wind-powered renewable energy. The effect this subsidy has on costs is shown in Fig.
30 Jean-Franyois Pons I Timothee Sautter competition authorities, the task is now to ensure that the reformed competition framework maintains the same level of efficiency as the previous system. This task will require strong and efficient competition services within the Commission as well as strong leadership at the European Commission and in the national competition authorities. Co-operation at alilevels all levels will be essential. Ultimately, constant support from Member States and from their citizens will be needed to preserve the efficiency of European competition policy.
Therefore, the aim should be to strike the proper balance between competition and regulation by making sure that government interventions have the least possible damaging impact on competition. Nowadays, this task of enhancing competition is difficult because State interventions occur under numerous and constantly evolving forms: direct subsidies, grant of monopoly rights, preferential fiscal treatment, regulations, etc. Governments are also under constant pressure from private groups lobbying to enact new legal instruments protecting their vested interests and restrict competition ("rent seeking").