Download Basic Research and Technologies for Two-Stage-to-Orbit by Dieter Jacob, Gottfried Sachs, Siegfried Wagner PDF

By Dieter Jacob, Gottfried Sachs, Siegfried Wagner

Targeting simple elements of destiny reusable area transportation structures and overlaying total layout, aerodynamics, thermodynamics, flight dynamics, propulsion, fabrics, and constructions, this file offers probably the most contemporary effects got in those disciplines. The authors are individuals of 3 Collaborative learn facilities in Aachen, Munich and Stuttgart all for hypersonic vehicles.
a huge a part of the examine provided the following bargains with experimental and numerical aerodynamic themes starting from low velocity to hypersonic stream prior the exterior configuration and during inlet and nozzle. Mathematicians and engineers together labored on points of flight mechanics like trajectory optimization, balance, keep watch over and flying characteristics. Structural study and improvement was once predominantly coupled to the wishes for prime temperature resistant buildings for house autos.

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Consequences look different for the original Sänger cruise mission from Europe. In Fig. 12 GTOM and dry mass are displayed over staging Mach number. It can be observed that significant reductions are achievable. This results mainly from mass savings in the wing or structural group and the propulsion group, which will be explained below. Accounting for mass and complexity aspects, the optimum staging Mach number for an ACES-vehicle can also be found at maximum operating velocity of the turbojet engines [21].

Another important aspect is the purity grade of 29 3 Overall Design Aspects the extracted oxygen, which is related to the specific impulse of the second stage rocket engines. 5 sec. Compared to ground-based oxygen extraction facilities, ACES can reach a purity of 90–98%. If specific impulse of the rocket engines decreases due to impure oxygen, more LOX and LH2 are required to meet the kinetic energy demand of the second stage. Thus orbiter size will increase, which results in additional mass and drag for the complete system [17, 18].

For optimum engine performance the trajectory of the orbiter has to be adapted to the airbreathing engine characteristics. Precompression of the ambient air requires high dynamic pressures during ascent. This leads to increased aerodynamic drag and heat loads on the structure. Heat loads on the orbiter might even be higher during hypersonic ascent than during re-entry into the atmosphere. Consequently the vehicle has to be covered with a high-temperature thermal-protection-system (TPS) over most of the vehicle’s surface, thus increasing dry mass.

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