World Civilizations, Volume 1: The Global Experience

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He on the other side of the door naturally heard the noise and greeted it with a triumphant screech: ``Aha! Since the middle of the 8th century, the Dome of the Rock has become the focal centre of the most mystical event in the life of the Prophet: his ascension into heaven from the rock around which the building was erected. Hoffman�s team tested the carbon-13/12 ratios of the cap carbonates and found them to be lifeless.� That was key evidence presented in their 1998 paper that supported Kirschvink�s Snowball Earth hypothesis. [130] � As Kirschvink did, Hoffman and his colleagues argued that BIFs were evidence of Snowball Earth conditions, and they concluded their paper as Kirschvink did, by stating that the alternating icehouse and greenhouse periods would have produced extreme environmental stress on the ecosystems and may well have led to the explosion of complex life in their aftermath.� A few months after publication of the Hoffman team�s paper came another seminal paper, by Donald Canfield. [131] � Those papers resulted in a flurry of scientific investigations and controversy.� Hoffman engaged in feuds as Snowball Earth�s front man.� The Snowball Earth hypothesis has won out, so far.� There is a � Slushball Earth � hypothesis that states that the Cryogenian Ice Age was not as severe as Hoffman and his colleagues suggest, and there are other disputes over the Snowball Earth hypothesis, but the idea of a global glaciation is probably here to stay, with a great deal of ongoing investigation .� The record during the Cryog enian Ice Age shows immense swings in organic carbon burial, coinciding with the formation of late-Proterozoic BIFs. [132] �The Proterozoic Eon is the last one before complex life appeared on Earth.� Canfield�s original hypothesis, which seems largely valid today, is that the deep oceans were not oxygenated until the Ediacaran Period, which followed the Cryogenian; the process did not begin until about 580 mya and first completed about 560 mya. [133] � Th e wildest carbon-13/12 ratio swing in Earth�s entire geological record begins about 575 mya and ends about 550 mya, and is called the Shuram excursion. [134] � Explaining the Shuram excursion is one of the most controversial areas of geology today, with numerous proposed hypotheses.� When the controversies are finally resolved, if they are resolved, the Shuram and Lomagundi excursions, even though they go in opposite directions, I suspect will likely be both related to the dynamics of ice ages and the rise of oxygen levels.� Ediacaran fauna, the first large, complex organisms to ever appear on Earth, also first appeared about 575 mya, when the Shuram excursion began. [135] � I strongly doubt that Earth�s first appearance of large complex life at the exact geological timescale moment of the wildest carbon-isotope swing in Earth�s history will prove to be a coincidence.� The numerous competing hypotheses regarding the Shuram excursion include: The oxidation of a vast pool of organic carbon in the oceans, aided by the carbon-removal effect of animal feces and dead animals dropping to the ocean floor; [136] The excursion does not mark a genuine event relating to life processes, but is an artifact of geological processes (called diagenesis ); this has a high hurdle to overcome, as the excursion has been measured globally and diagenesis is usually a local phenomenon, and no global mechanism has yet been proposed for it; [137] It was related to a global glaciation, like previous Snowball Earth glaciations; [140] The excursion was real, but there were others, and none of them significantly impacted Precambrian evolution. [141] Deep-ocean currents, taking atmospheric gases deep into the oceans as they do today, do not seem to have existed during supercontinental times, and atmospheric oxygen was likely only a few percent at most when the Cryogenian Period began.� Canfield�s ocean-oxygenation evidence partly came from testing sulfur isotopes.� As with carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, life prefers the lighter isotope of sulfur, and sulfur-32 and sulfur-34 are two stable isotopes that can be easily tested in sediments.� Canfield proposed that in pre-Cryogenian oceanic depths, sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are among Earth�s earliest life forms and produce hydrogen sulfide as its waste product, abounded.� Hydrogen sulfide gives rotten eggs their distinctive aroma and is highly toxic to plants and animals, as it disables the enzymes used in mitochondrial respiration. �Hydrogen sulfide would react with dissolved iron to form iron pyrite and settle out in the ocean floor, just as the iron oxide did that formed the BIFs.� The sulfate-reducing bacteria will enrich the sulfur-32/34 ratio by 3% and did so before the Cryogenian, but the Ediacaran iron pyrite sediments showed a 5% enrichment.� A persuasive explanation is recycling sulfur in the oceanic ecosystem, which can only happen in the presence of oxygen. [142] Part of the hypothesis for skyrocketing oxygen levels during the late Proterozoic was that high carbon dioxide levels, combined with a continent that had been ground down by glaciers, and the resumption of the hydrological cycle, which would have vanished during the Snowball Earth events, would have created conditions of dramatically increased erosion, which would have buried carbon (the cap carbonates are part of that evidence) and thus helped oxygenate the atmosphere.� Evidence for that increased erosion also came in the form of strontium isotope analysis.� Two of strontium�s stable isotopes are strontium-86 and 87 .� Earth�s mantle is enriched in strontium-86 while the crust is enriched in strontium-87, so basalts exposed to the ocean in the oceanic volcanic ridges are enriched in strontium-86 while continental rocks are enriched in strontium-87. �If erosion is higher than normal, then ocean sediments will be enriched in strontium-87, which analysis of Ediacaran sediments confirmed.� That evidence, combined with carbon isotope ratios, provides a strong indication of high erosion and high carbon burial, which would have increased atmospheric oxygen levels. [143] � There is other evidence of increasing atmospheric oxygen content during the late Proterozoic, such as an increase in rare earth elements in Ediacaran sediments.� Although there is still plenty of controversy, today's consensus is that the Cryogenian is when atmospheric oxygen levels began rising to modern levels, where they have largely stayed, although as this essay will later discuss, oxygen levels have varied widely since the late Proterozoic (from perhaps only a few percent to 35%).� An increase in atmospheric oxygen usually meant a decline in carbon dioxide, which would have cooled the planet.� Recent data and models suggest that during the Cryogenian Period, global surface temperatures declined from around 40o C to around 20o C, and it has been below 30o C ever since, generally fluctuating between� 25o C and 10o C.� Today�s global surface temperature of around 15o C is several degrees warmer than during the glacial periods of the current ice age but is still among the lowest that Earth has ever experienced, and is generally attributed to atmospheric carbon dioxide�s consistent decline during the past 100-150 million years .� Paleontologists were lonely fossil hunters for more than a century, but in my lifetime they found allies in geologists, and with the rise of DNA sequencing and genomics, molecular biologists have provided invaluable assistance.� In 1 996, a paper was published that created a huge splash in paleontological circles. [144] � Molecular biologists used the concept of the �molecular clock� of genetic divergence among various species.� Their work concluded that the stage was set for animal emergence hundreds of millions of years before they appeared in the fossil record, particularly during the Cambrian Explosion.� That paper initiated its own explosion of genetic research, and the current range of estimates has the genetic origins of animals somewhere between 1.2 bya and 700 mya, but this field is in its infancy and more results are surely coming. [145] � From an early optimism that molecular clocks could finely calibrate the timing of events, scientists have come to admit that �molecular clocks� do not reliably keep time.� Today, molecular evidence is used more to tell what happened than when.� The geological and archeological record is considered more accurate for dating, and that evidence is used for calibrating molecular evidence.� Even though �molecular clocks� keep far from perfect time, they are being used to do some timekeeping, when they can be bounded by other timing evidence, with a kind of interpolation of the data points.

Pages: 232

Publisher: Longman Publishing Group; Study Guide ed. edition (February 1, 2005)

ISBN: 0321187520

Art and Empire: Treasures from Assyria in the British Museum

Mind is wholly changed into light by entertaining divine thoughts Acts of the 13th International Congress of Greek and Latin Epigraphy: Summary Papers. The urban history of Sparta makes an interesting case history showing that Mycenaean Sparta was not so physically or psychologically secure as its Greek and Roman successors Introduction to Medieval History (Bristol Classical Paperbacks). Civilization entered the English language in the mid-18th century with the meaning “the act or process of bringing out of a savage or uneducated state.” In this preimperialistic age of exploration, it was popular to view people from less-developed lands as barbaric and in great need of cultural edification Syllabus for the history of civilization. I am just now returning to the culture section and would like to see some changes around here as well as be enlightened. anyway enough with the out. Oldest West African Civilization/settlement by KidStranglehold: 10:15pm On Jun 12, 2013 I agree with you Another Modernity: A Different Rationality. They also had problems with climate change and security at the international level. These are not necessarily unique to just them and us, but the combination of similar problems (climate change and drought, earthquakes, war, economic problems) at the very same time just might be unique to both." Tloque Nahuaque Lord of everywhere, the one supreme force, both male and female. Thought to be half human and half alligator. Those who died of natural causes went to live with this god. On the way to him their skin was ripped off by a wind of knives; then they lived as skeletons. Chalchiuhtlicue Goddess of the lakes and streams. Huitzilopochtli God of war, sun, and the nation. Shown holding a fire-breathing serpent and a shield Ridpath's universal history Volume 13 ; an account of the origin, primitive condition, and race development of the greater divisions of mankind, and ... nations from the beginnings of the civilized. Or was it just an adventure; an enormous gamble that paid off and changed the course of world history in the course of an autumn day?" "To gain a clear understanding of why the Battle of Hastings occurred, you should be aware of the political and cultural histories of England and Normandy before the battle, the intertwined relationships of England and Normandy, the relationship of the English royalty to the Norman dukes, and, lastly, the principal personalities: Harold Godwinson, Duke William, and Edward the Confessor A History of the Church in Nine Books (Illustrated).

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The jar shown below belongs to this period. Back in India, the Indus Valley Civilization was already producing the finest cities in the world with proper sanitation and town planning receiving the heaviest focus. By mature Harappan times (circa 2600 BC), this civilization grew to such an extent in area as well as in population that it indicates a powerful centralized authority present in the system Personal sketches of his own times Volume 2. Perhaps if I did know I wouldn't dare put pen to paper Regeneration. A reply to Max Nordau. The modern economy is a male epic, in which women have found a productive role — but women were not its author If men are obsolete, then women will soon be extinct — unless we rush down that ominous Brave New World path where women clone themselves by parthenogenesis, as famously do Komodo dragons, hammerhead sharks and pit vipers Anthropology Explored: The Best of Smithsonian AnthroNotes. Later, reforming prophets railed against the practice of drawing royal wives from among foreigners: Elijah execrated Jezebel, the princess from Tyre who became a consort of King Ahab and introduced the worship of her gods The Eternal City.

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There are four basic assumptions underlying traditional music marketing strategies. First, segmentation hinges on the basis of musical taste. Second, people specialize in terms of musical taste Western Civilization 101: The TextVook. Culture, on the other hand, is more of a by-product of civilization. In the process of civilization, different groups of people developed a way of life unique to themselves. This way of life is the culture of that particular group of people. That is how we have different cultures in different countries. The word culture could also mean development of the human mind to higher levels of thinking, refinement of the individual The Oxford History of Byzantium. Late Antiquity is the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world: generally from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the 3rd century (c. 284) to the Islamic conquests and the re-organization of the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius. Mesopotamia is the site of some of the earliest known civilizations in the world The Western Experience. The Rita that haunted me had no history; she was but the principle of life charged with fatality. Her form was only a mirage of desire decoying one step by step into despair. or Ortega gulped down some more wine and suggested I should tell him who I was. ``It's only right I should know,'' he added Study Guide to accompany Civilization in the West, Vol. 2: From 1350 to 1850. The two world wars left the leading European nations virtually bankrupt, and unable to maintain their huge overseas possessions in the face of newly potent anti-colonial movements. These are often invigorated by communist leadership, ideology and support. In South East Asia the Dutch East Indian Empire has become the independent nation of Indonesia; and in the South Asian sub-contient Britain ’s Indian empire is now divided between the independent states of India and Pakistan Politics and Culture in Early Modern Europe: Essays in Honour of H. G. Koenigsberger.

History of civilization being a course of lectures on the origin

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Thus he puts a check on the Vak-Indriya and the impulses of speech. This produces deeply profound and favourable impression on the minds of the people. He practices Ahimsa and Brahmacharya in thought, word and deed. He practices Saucha and Arjava (straightforwardness). He tries to keep up balance of mind and to be always cheerful. He tries these three kinds of Tapas (physical, verbal and mental), and controls his actions The Construction of the Assyrian Empire: A Historical Study of the Inscriptions of Shalmanesar III Relating to His Campaigns in the West (Culture and History of the Ancient Near East). The Sound Of Inevitability: Achieve Max Level in Supremacy. The View is Tremendous: Win a game on a Large Map. There is no Try: Get beaten to wonders 10 times. Tiny Big Planet: Win a game on a Tiny Map. United Federation of Planets: Win at least one game on each map size and type A History of Civilization Vol. 1. Third edition (Volume 1). The unique feature of Islamic techniques is the astounding development taken by the so-called decorative arts—e.g., woodwork, glass, ceramics, metalwork, textiles. New techniques were invented and spread throughout the Muslim world—at times even beyond its frontiers. In dealing with Islam, therefore, it is quite incorrect to think of these techniques as the “minor” arts The life of Buddha as legend and history. Behalve het Nationaal park van de Chaco cultuur, behoren ook de ruïnes van de Azteken tot het werelderfgoed. Chaco Culture (United States of America). retouched/Q. CWL8200 Scanner © Sacred sites Chaco Culture is a network of archaeological sites in northwestern New Mexico which preserves outstanding elements of a vast pre-Columbian cultural complex that dominated much of what is now the southwestern United States from the mid-9th to early 13th centuries The German Genius: Europe's Third Renaissance, the Second Scientific Revolution, and the Twentieth Century. And her face looked like a face in a painting. She said at once: She addressed me most frequently in that way as though she liked the very word ``young.'' Her manner was certainly peasant-like with a sort of plaint in the voice, while the face was that of a serving Sister in some small and rustic convent. ``I meant to do it,'' I said. ``I am a very bad person.'' ``The young are always full of fun,'' she said as if she were gloating over the idea. ``It is very pleasant.'' ``But you are very brave,'' I chaffed her, ``for you didn't expect a ring, and after all it might have been the devil who pulled the bell.'' ``It might have been Town and Country in Southeastern Anatolia, Volume 1: Settlement and Land Use at Kurban Hoyuek and Other Sites in the Lower Karababa Basin (The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago). Economic s is the study of humanity�s material well-being, but humans have rarely thought past their immediate economic self-interest, even when the long-term prospects were obviously suicidal, such as today�s global energy paradigm.� Because environmental issues affect humanity�s material well-being, they are economic in nature.� As can be seen so far in this essay, there was little awareness or seeming caring in early civilizations whether they were destroying the very foundations of their civilizations. �Even if they did not care how much other life forms suffered, they did not seem to realize that it also meant that those oppressed and exterminated organisms and wrecked environments would not provide much benefit to humanity in the future, especially energy, whether it was food or wood The Spectacle of Ourselves: A Chronology of Key Events in World History from Big Bang to 2012. Evidence of the early Africans is widespread and varied. Dozens of majestic stone heads have been found at ancient sacred sites, such as La Venta and Tres Zapotes in southern Mexico (See photograph). Ranging up to 9 feet and 4 inches in height, with a circumference of 22 feet, and weighing 30 to 40 tons, these colossal statues depict helmeted Black men with large eyes, broad fleshy noses and full lips Sources of the West: Readings in Western Civilization, Volume I (From the Beginning to 1715) (6th Edition).