Dance of the Millions: Military Rule and the Social

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Juveniles are held in separate facilities operated by the Colombian Institute for Family Welfare (ICBF). ZIKV is most commonly spread by mosquito bites, but there is also a risk of sexual transmission. This orientation often led the group to seek political support from Nicaragua and Cuba, but the M-19's leadership also claimed that it resisted forming permanent foreign ties. But he'd visited Israel, and had also played saxophone in a band that performed Jewish songs for Medellin's traditional Jewish community.

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Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press; 1 edition (1957)


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Nov 1925: Alessandri resigns again as president of Chile and is replaced by Emiliano Figueroa, causing a two-day general strike 1925: Gerardo Machado becomes president of Cuba and installs a dictatorship, opposed by the newly-founded Communist Party 1926: Bolivia's president Saavedra appoints Hernando Siles-Reyes, founder of the Nationalist Party, to be his successor May 1927: The colonel Carlos Ibanez seizes power in Chile, opening a period of political chaos 1927: Under pressure from the USA, Peru and Colombia ratify new borders that penalize Peru 1928: Venezuela's dictator Gomez quashes a rebellion by students and young officers, many of whom go into exile (Jovito Villalba, Raul Leon, Romulo Betancourt) Dec 1928: Emilio Portes Gil becomes president of Mexico, but real power is in the hands of Calles Nov 1929: Calles' choice Pascual Ortiz Rubio becomes president of Mexico, the beginning of rule by the PRI Oct 1930: The military seizes power in Brazil and installs the fascist government of rancher Getulio Vargas, who launches a populist revolution (end of the "Old Republic") 1930: One million Europeans immigrated to Argentina in one decade, 31% of the population is foreign-born, 46% of Argentinians live in the province of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires has two million people, literacy is 60%, 1930: The military, led by lieutenant colonel Luis Sanchez Cerro, overthrow Leguia in Peru, opening the age of the "tripartite" political system (the military, APRA and PCP) Sep 1930: A coup overthrows Hipolito Yrigoyen and installs Uriburu again, the beginning of military intervention in Argentina's politics 1930: The liberal Enrique Olaya Herrera is appointed president of Colombia, returning the liberals to power after four decades 1931: Cuba's population grows from 1.6 million in 1899 to 4 million, thanks to European immigration and improved health care Jul 1931: Chile's president Ibanez is forced to resign by strikes by workers, students and lawyers Jul 1932: More than 1,000 members of APRA are executed during an insurrection in Peru, Haya is arrested and APRA is banned Oct 1932: Arturo Alessandri becomes president of Chile again and restores order, turning Chile into the most democratic country in Latin America 1933: Peru's dictator Sanchez Cerro is assassinated by a supporter of APRA and replaced by army marshal Oscar Raimundo Benavides, while Haya, released from jail, goes abroad 1935: Bolivia loses the war against Paraguay that annexes most of Bolivia's Gran Chaco after more than 100,000 people have died, mostly of diseases 1935: Juan Vicente Gomez of Venezuela dies, opening a decade of chaos 1937: Ruilova resigns and is replaced by colonel German Busch Becerra as dictator of Bolivia, who experiments with "military socialism" 1938: The candidate of the Frente Popular, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, narrowly wins the presidential elections of Chile (beginning of the Radical Years) 1939: Peru's president Benavides is replaced by the winner of elections, Manuel Prado, who allows APRA's leader Haya to return from exile 1940: Mexico's president Lazaro Cardenas is replaced by Manuel Avila Camacho of the PRI, who launches industrial reforms 1940: The population of Peru is 7 million, with 500,000 people in Lima 1941: Hernan Siles and V�ctor Paz Estenssoro found the "Revolutionary Nationalist Movement" (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario, or MNR) in Bolivia 1941: Chile's president Cerda dies and is succeeded by the Radical candidate Juan Antonio Rio, while the Frente Popular is dissolved 1941: Venezuelan politicians (Romulo Betancourt, Raul Leoni) and writers (Romulo Gallegos, Andres Blanco) found the party "Accion Democratica" Oct 1943: Argentina's president Pedro Ramirez gives the ministry of Labor to Juan-Domingo Peron, who proceeds to organize workers 1944: Norman Borlaug begins experimenting with hybrid wheat in Mexico, launching the Green Revolution Mar 1945: The civilian Juan Jose Arevalo wins elections and becomes president of Guatemala, and his group of "October Revolutionaries" enacts liberal reforms, the beginning of the "Democratic Spring" 1945: Chilean writer Gabriela Mistral wins the Nobel Prize for literature, the first Latin American to win the prize 1946: Miguel Aleman Valdez of the PRI is elected president of Mexico, the first civilian president of Mexico since the revolution 1946: More than 80 Guatemalan prisoners, psychiatric patients and sex workers die between 1946 and 1948 after being deliberately infected with syphilis and gonorrhoea by government scientists of the USA 1946: Francesco Matarazzo Sobrinho, son of Francesco Matarazzo, founds the "Museu de Arte Moderna" in Sao Paulo, Brazil 1946: The USA established the military "School of the Americas" at Fort Gulick in the Canal Zone to train Latin American military officers, many of whom will stage coups in their countries 1946: Rafael Caldera founds the Social Christian Party of Venezuela, COPEI 1946: The conservative Mariano Ospina Perez is elected president in Colombia, ending liberal rule 1947: Venezuela holds its first free elections, won by Romulo Gallegos Mar 1948: Jose Figueres Ferrer in Costa Rica helped by a Caribbean Legion (mostly from Cuba) starts a civil war against the fraudolent reelection of Calderon (supported by Nicaragua) on behalf of the real winner, Otilio Ulate, and seizes power Dec 1948: A military coup deposes the liberal Romulo Gallegos of Accion Democratica in Venezuela and installs Marcos Perez Jimenez as president, a corrupt politician who outlaws the leftists Oct 1948: A military coup deposes Bustamante in Peru and installs general Manuel Odria, the hero of the 1941 war against Ecuador Apr 1948: The populist Jorge Gaitan is assassinated in Colombia, starting a civil war that killed 250,000 people in ten years ("La Violencia") 1948: Galo Plaza Lasso of the liberal coalition, son of Leonidas Plaza, wins elections in Ecuador and diversifies the economy that used to be based mainly on cacao Aug 1950: The fascist and fanatical Catholic politician Laureano Gomez is elected president of Colombia after all opposition candidates have been forced to withdraw, while civil war rages in the country 1950: In the first peaceful transition of power in Guatemala's history, Arevalo is replaced by Jacobo Arbenz (another "October Revolutionary") as president of Guatemala, who allies with the communists 1950: Mexico's president Aleman commissions architect Carlos Lazo to build the Universidad Nacional, the largest campus in the world 1951: Juan Peron announces that Argentina's nuclear program led by Austrian scientist Ronald Richter, but the program is later proved a fraud 1951: Francesco Matarazzo Sobrinho founds the "Bienal Internacional de Arte" of Sao Paulo, Brazil 1952: The poor of Bolivia seize power ("Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario") after defeating the army, and Victor Paz Estenssoro forms a government, ending more than a century of coups (a total of 179, including six presidents assassinated) 1952: Latin America posts the highest population growth of all regions in the world, with Argentina growing 251% in 50 years and Brazil 191% 1952: Responding to public discontent with the government, general Batista returns to Cuba and seizes power 1952: Women are allowed to vote in presidential elections in Chile, that are won by the conservative candidate, former dictator Carlos Ibanez (end of the "Radical Years") with support from the Communists 1952: Adolfo Ruiz Cortines of the PRI is elected president of Mexico, and proceeds to build 33,000 kms of roads, irrigation for millions of acres of desert, thousands of schools and hundreds of hospitals June 1954: Rebels led by Castillo Armas and supported by the USA's CIA stage a coup in Guatemala to depose president Arbenz after he begins expropriating United Fruit's plantations, the end of the "Democratic Spring" Jan 1955: Costa Rica, a country without an army, is invaded from Guatemala by former Costa Rica president Rafael Calder�n (supported by Nicaragua) but the USA stops the invasion Jan 1956: Minas Gerais' governor Juscelino Kubitschek is elected president of Brazil, despite the fact that Joao Goulart wins more votes, and founds a new capital, Brasilia, in the interior, designed by Lucio Costa 1957: The Partido Democrata Cristiano (PDC) is founded in Chile from the union of the National Falange, the Social Christian Conservative Party and the Ibanez's Agrarian Labor Party 1958: Chile's president Ibanez re-legalizes the PCC that forms a coalition with the Socialists, the Frente de Accion Popular (FRAP), that narrowly loses the elections to the conservative candidate and former president's son Jorge Alessandri (Salvador Allende is the candidate of the FRAP, Eduardo Frei is the candidate of the Christian Democrats) Jan 1958: The liberal Alberto Lleras Camargo is elected president of Colombia, ending "La Violencia" (civil war) but several regions declare independent republics, notably the communist "Marquetalia Republic" Jan 1959: Fidel Castro wins the revolution and installs a communist regime in Cuba, while Che Guevara summarily executes members of the Batista government Mar 1959: Martin Echegoyen is elected president of Uruguay, the first president coming from the "Partido Nacional" since Oribe's times 1959: Venezuela's former president Perez Jimenez is extradited by the USA, the first head of state to be extradited by the USA 1960: The population of Latin America is 200 million, half of it in Mexico and Brazil 1960: The population of Peru has doubled in ten years, thanks to European immigrants Jan 1961: Janio Quadros wins presidential elections in Brazil, inheriting from Kubitschek both hyper-inflation and huge foreign debt Aug 1961: Unable to pass austerity measures, Janio Quadros of Brazil resigns and is replaced by vice-president Joao Goulart 1961: The Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (Sandinista National Liberation Front) is founded in Nicaragua to fight the Somoza dictatorship, with help from Cuba, Costa Rica and Panama, and opposed by the USA Oct 1962: The USA forces the Soviet Union to stop building missile bases in Cuba, and the USA imposes an economic embargo on Cuba 1963: The communist "Fuerzas Armadas de Liberacion Nacional" (FALN), trained and funded by Cuba, carries out terrorist attacks in Venezuela Jul 1963: Arturo Illia is elected president of Argentina after the Peronists abstain from voting, and proceeds to nationalize oil industry 1963: Osvaldo Lopez Arellano seizes power in Honduras with a coup, the beginning of 18 years of military dictatorship Jul 1963: In a rerun of the previous presidential election Fernando Belaunde Terry, founder of the party "Accion Popular", is elected president of Peru over Haya and Odria, and creates new universities throughout the country 1963: Raul Sendic founds the revolutionary group Tupamaros in Uruguay, launching a campaign of robberies and kidnappings Apr 1964: After urging student riots and strikes against the military, Joao Goulart of Brazil is deposed by the military and replaced by army marshal Humberto Castelo-Branco 1965: Fidel Castro allows one million Cubans over five years to leave Cuba and settle in the USA, while Che Guevara leaves Cuba to promote revolutions in other countries (Congo and Bolivia) Jan 1966: Cuba hosts the "Solidarity Conference of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America" 1967: Cuba revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara, who was trying to spread the communist revolution to Latin America, is killed by USA agents in Bolivia 1967: Guatemala's writer Miguel Angel Asturias wins a Nobel Prize, the first one awarded to Latin America 1967: 700 landowners own 50% of Peru's land, or 2% of the population owns 90% of the productive land Oct 1968: As inflation reaches 150%, Fernando Belaunde Terry of Peru is deposed by a leftist military revolution led by general Juan Velasco Alvarado, who enacts a massive socialist-inspired agrarian reform Aug 1969: Following a stroke by Costa e Silva, the military appoint general Emilio Garrastazu Medici as president of Brazil, but guerrillas fight against the government through kidnappings and bombings 1969: The Andean Common Market is formed by Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru 1970: The conservative Misael Pastrana Borrero is elected president of Colombia, narrowly defeating former dictator Rojas Pinilla, but anarchy still reigns Nov 1970: The left-wing Unidad Popular led by Salvador Allende wins 36.3% of votes in democratic elections in Chile against 34.9% for right-wing Partido Nacional and 27.8% of the Christian Democrats, and Allende becomes the first Marxist politician in the world to be elected democratically, and begins a program of nationalization of foreign companies (copper, coal, steel) and distribution of land to the poor against an opposition that enjoys a majority in parliament 1970: Peak of the Tupamaros insurgency in Uruguay, with kidnappings and assassinations Mar 1971: Following more riots in Cordoba, Levingston is replaced by general Alejandro Lanusse Mar 1972: Juan Marma Bordaberry becomes president of Uruguay, winning against the "Partido Nacional" as well as an alliance of left-wing parties called the "Frente Amplio", and defeats the Tupamaros 1972: Andreas Pavel invents the stereobelt in Brazil, the first portable audio cassette player Sep 1973: Juan Peron returns from exile and wins Argentina's presidential elections for the second time, the first election since the military dictatorships of the 1960s 1973: The USA and Cuba sign a treaty to prosecute plane hijackers, after more than 80 airplanes have been hijacked since 1961 to Cuba Feb 1973: A military dictatorship in Uruguay bans socialism, ending 70 years od democratic governments, although Bordaberry remains formally president Sep 1973: As inflation hits 500% and GDP declines 7%, and strikes paralyze the country, Chile's president Allende is overthrown by general Augusto Pinochet and commits suicide 1974: The liberal Alfonso Lopez Michaelson becomes president of Colombia following the dissolution of the Frente Nacional, but he still forms a government of coalition while the country plunges into anarchy Jul 1974: Isabel Peron, the second wife of Juan Peron, becomes president of Argentina at his death, the first woman to become president in the Americas 1974: Mexico plunges into an economic crisis, after 20 years of rapid growth (average +6.5%) Sep 1975: Peru's president Velasco is replaced by general Francisco Morales Bermudez, who launches an economic austerity program to curb inflation TM, ®, Copyright © 2008 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved Fighting Monsters in the Abyss: The Second Administration of Colombian President Álvaro Uribe Vélez, 2006–2010.