Civilization & Culture

A history of Rome to the battle of Actium;

Format: Hardcover Language: English Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 14.75 MB Downloadable formats: PDF In Chichen Itza, such ceremony was celebrated by the J-Men in 2007 when the Hacienda Chichen owners donated a vast portion of their private Maya Jungle Reserve to the Mayan Healers and Priests to continue their Spiritual Mayan traditions in the manner their ancestors taught them. The queen was later taken off and stabbed to death. Morgan�s publicist, Ivy Lee, who soon concocted the charade of Rockefeller giving a dime to everybody that he met, and he became a great �philanthropist� who helped establish today�s medical racket, with help from fellow robber barons such as Andrew Carnegie .� Ivy L ee is considered the father of public relations.� The public relations industry is a scientific way to manipulate the public's mind.� It has reached a high degree of sophistication, particularly in the USA and the UK.� In th e early days of public relations, terms such as �propaganda� had a positive technical meaning.� Edward Bernays wrote a book with that title, and addicting women to tobacco was one of his many feats.� The roots of public relations lie in the English civil wars of the 1600s, when the absolute power of royalty was permanently undermined and the �rabble� began to have some say in their governance. [797] � When the state could no longer inflict violence with impunity on its subjects, controlling what people thought became the preeminent tool of population control.� Indoctrination and brainwashing began its progress in the UK to previously unimagined levels, which led to works such as Orwell�s 1984. �D uring my adventures, I have heard tales from fellow travelers about their encounters with �humanitarians� and �philanthropists,� and one of them, after numerous encounters with such �benefactors,� asked the question: �If vegetarians eat vegetables, what do humanitarians eat?� Most of th e world�s poorest nations export food to the West�s industrialized nations, who are history�s fattest people, while people in the exporting nations are often hungry and underweight.� Neocolonial institutions such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund perform �philanthropic� duties.� On ce in a great while, somebody from the inside of such �philanthropic� organizations comes forward and discloses the real game, such as John Perkins and those that his revelations inspired to come forward. [798] � Imperialism seemed more honest in Rome�s time, or Spain�s, when it was simply might makes right, and they conquered, raped, murdered, enslaved, and plundered because they could.� Conquest, exploitation, and genocide under the banners of � philanthropy ,� � humanitarian intervention ,� � liberating Iraq ,� and � freeing markets � is a far more dishonest exercise.� Is it an improvement to perform the same malevolent deeds under a thinly-veiled �humanitarian� cover story?� It seems to only give a superficially plausible rationale for the imperial class, which in the USA is all who live in it (except maybe reservation Indians, Latinos working in the fields, deeply impoverished African-Americans, and prisoners), so that the imperial class can sleep better at night, but it seems to largely be a wink-and-nod exercise. [...]

Ebb and Flow: Tides and Life on Our Once and Future Planet

Format: Paperback Language: English Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 7.83 MB Downloadable formats: PDF On this occasion we parted from each other on a light-hearted note. Minor purchases were made with cacao beans imported from lowlands. No wonder no one trusts politicians — egomaniacs and prima donnas all. Worldly thoughts will trouble you a lot in the beginning of your new life of thought-culture. The underlying belief is that present happiness and future salvation are contingent upon one’s ethical or moral conduct; therefore, both society and individuals are expected to pursue a diverse but righteous path deemed appropriate for everyone based on one’s birth, age, and station in life (see Caste and Class, ch. 5). [...]

Periclean Athens: Was it a democracy? (Random House

Format: Paperback Language: English Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 13.42 MB Downloadable formats: PDF He had a great experience of all unlawful things that can be done on the seas and he brought to the practice of them much wisdom and audacity. A grown man's bitterness, informed, suspicious, resembling hatred, welled out of my heart. ``All this means that you are going to desert me again?'' I said with contempt. ``All right. Don't think I am reproaching you, O blind force! II The wisdom of our ancestors frequently puzzles modern people. [...]


Format: Paperback Language: English Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 5.55 MB Downloadable formats: PDF Travellers in Iraq were confronted by huge murals and billboards of Saddam at Ur: Saddam on the white horse of Hussein at Karbala; Saddam receiving the Tablets of Destiny from Ashurnasipal himself. White privilege is the other side of the coin of racial oppression. Your journey begins with a close look at the backgrounds to the modern Western world and an exploration of how Western Europe transitioned from a medieval mindset to the modern path that would take it through the next 600 years. [...]

Western Civilization: A Social and Cultural History, Volume

Format: Paperback Language: English Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 5.44 MB Downloadable formats: PDF Culture also provides the legitimacy and justification for the perpetuation of institutions from one generation to the next. (Material provided by Diana Dunn of People�s Institute.) For example, a local public school can survive as an individual institution because some parents choose to send their children to the school. And today�s multi�national capitalists cheerfully throw millions of workers out of work while they rake in billions in profits. The third century BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of pharaohs following Menes into 30 dynasties, a system still in use today. [...]

A manual of photographic chemistry, theoretical and

Format: Paperback Language: English Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 7.56 MB Downloadable formats: PDF I was extremely anxious the fellow should depart for Tolosa and get shot in a ravine; or go to the Devil in his own way, as long as he lost the track of Do a Rita completely. If they had not been welded by conversion into the unity of Islam, they would have soon flung off the Arab yoke as Persia actually did, language and all, in a few centuries. Ancient Egyptians were prolific builders. Strong determination and firm resolution will bring sanguine success in every affair or undertaking, and particularly so in the conquest of mind. [...]

Social Organization

Format: Paperback Language: Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 9.53 MB Downloadable formats: PDF I remember this day exactly: July 21, 1999. When the end came it was like falling out of a balcony into the street. I reflected that there were no means of sending a warning to Do a Rita in Tolosa; for of course no postal communication existed with the Headquarters. She offered her hand to Mills very frankly as to an old friend. The actual histories presented are conventional, and can be found in encyclopedias or history books. Singing is very beneficial to drive off gloom. [...]

World Civilizations, Volume 1: The Global Experience

Format: Paperback Language: English Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 11.71 MB Downloadable formats: PDF He on the other side of the door naturally heard the noise and greeted it with a triumphant screech: ``Aha! Since the middle of the 8th century, the Dome of the Rock has become the focal centre of the most mystical event in the life of the Prophet: his ascension into heaven from the rock around which the building was erected. Hoffman�s team tested the carbon-13/12 ratios of the cap carbonates and found them to be lifeless.� That was key evidence presented in their 1998 paper that supported Kirschvink�s Snowball Earth hypothesis. [130] � As Kirschvink did, Hoffman and his colleagues argued that BIFs were evidence of Snowball Earth conditions, and they concluded their paper as Kirschvink did, by stating that the alternating icehouse and greenhouse periods would have produced extreme environmental stress on the ecosystems and may well have led to the explosion of complex life in their aftermath.� A few months after publication of the Hoffman team�s paper came another seminal paper, by Donald Canfield. [131] � Those papers resulted in a flurry of scientific investigations and controversy.� Hoffman engaged in feuds as Snowball Earth�s front man.� The Snowball Earth hypothesis has won out, so far.� There is a � Slushball Earth � hypothesis that states that the Cryogenian Ice Age was not as severe as Hoffman and his colleagues suggest, and there are other disputes over the Snowball Earth hypothesis, but the idea of a global glaciation is probably here to stay, with a great deal of ongoing investigation .� The record during the Cryog enian Ice Age shows immense swings in organic carbon burial, coinciding with the formation of late-Proterozoic BIFs. [132] �The Proterozoic Eon is the last one before complex life appeared on Earth.� Canfield�s original hypothesis, which seems largely valid today, is that the deep oceans were not oxygenated until the Ediacaran Period, which followed the Cryogenian; the process did not begin until about 580 mya and first completed about 560 mya. [133] � Th e wildest carbon-13/12 ratio swing in Earth�s entire geological record begins about 575 mya and ends about 550 mya, and is called the Shuram excursion. [134] � Explaining the Shuram excursion is one of the most controversial areas of geology today, with numerous proposed hypotheses.� When the controversies are finally resolved, if they are resolved, the Shuram and Lomagundi excursions, even though they go in opposite directions, I suspect will likely be both related to the dynamics of ice ages and the rise of oxygen levels.� Ediacaran fauna, the first large, complex organisms to ever appear on Earth, also first appeared about 575 mya, when the Shuram excursion began. [135] � I strongly doubt that Earth�s first appearance of large complex life at the exact geological timescale moment of the wildest carbon-isotope swing in Earth�s history will prove to be a coincidence.� The numerous competing hypotheses regarding the Shuram excursion include: The oxidation of a vast pool of organic carbon in the oceans, aided by the carbon-removal effect of animal feces and dead animals dropping to the ocean floor; [136] The excursion does not mark a genuine event relating to life processes, but is an artifact of geological processes (called diagenesis ); this has a high hurdle to overcome, as the excursion has been measured globally and diagenesis is usually a local phenomenon, and no global mechanism has yet been proposed for it; [137] It was related to a global glaciation, like previous Snowball Earth glaciations; [140] The excursion was real, but there were others, and none of them significantly impacted Precambrian evolution. [141] Deep-ocean currents, taking atmospheric gases deep into the oceans as they do today, do not seem to have existed during supercontinental times, and atmospheric oxygen was likely only a few percent at most when the Cryogenian Period began.� Canfield�s ocean-oxygenation evidence partly came from testing sulfur isotopes.� As with carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, life prefers the lighter isotope of sulfur, and sulfur-32 and sulfur-34 are two stable isotopes that can be easily tested in sediments.� Canfield proposed that in pre-Cryogenian oceanic depths, sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are among Earth�s earliest life forms and produce hydrogen sulfide as its waste product, abounded.� Hydrogen sulfide gives rotten eggs their distinctive aroma and is highly toxic to plants and animals, as it disables the enzymes used in mitochondrial respiration. �Hydrogen sulfide would react with dissolved iron to form iron pyrite and settle out in the ocean floor, just as the iron oxide did that formed the BIFs.� The sulfate-reducing bacteria will enrich the sulfur-32/34 ratio by 3% and did so before the Cryogenian, but the Ediacaran iron pyrite sediments showed a 5% enrichment.� A persuasive explanation is recycling sulfur in the oceanic ecosystem, which can only happen in the presence of oxygen. [142] Part of the hypothesis for skyrocketing oxygen levels during the late Proterozoic was that high carbon dioxide levels, combined with a continent that had been ground down by glaciers, and the resumption of the hydrological cycle, which would have vanished during the Snowball Earth events, would have created conditions of dramatically increased erosion, which would have buried carbon (the cap carbonates are part of that evidence) and thus helped oxygenate the atmosphere.� Evidence for that increased erosion also came in the form of strontium isotope analysis.� Two of strontium�s stable isotopes are strontium-86 and 87 .� Earth�s mantle is enriched in strontium-86 while the crust is enriched in strontium-87, so basalts exposed to the ocean in the oceanic volcanic ridges are enriched in strontium-86 while continental rocks are enriched in strontium-87. �If erosion is higher than normal, then ocean sediments will be enriched in strontium-87, which analysis of Ediacaran sediments confirmed.� That evidence, combined with carbon isotope ratios, provides a strong indication of high erosion and high carbon burial, which would have increased atmospheric oxygen levels. [143] � There is other evidence of increasing atmospheric oxygen content during the late Proterozoic, such as an increase in rare earth elements in Ediacaran sediments.� Although there is still plenty of controversy, today's consensus is that the Cryogenian is when atmospheric oxygen levels began rising to modern levels, where they have largely stayed, although as this essay will later discuss, oxygen levels have varied widely since the late Proterozoic (from perhaps only a few percent to 35%).� An increase in atmospheric oxygen usually meant a decline in carbon dioxide, which would have cooled the planet.� Recent data and models suggest that during the Cryogenian Period, global surface temperatures declined from around 40o C to around 20o C, and it has been below 30o C ever since, generally fluctuating between� 25o C and 10o C.� Today�s global surface temperature of around 15o C is several degrees warmer than during the glacial periods of the current ice age but is still among the lowest that Earth has ever experienced, and is generally attributed to atmospheric carbon dioxide�s consistent decline during the past 100-150 million years .� Paleontologists were lonely fossil hunters for more than a century, but in my lifetime they found allies in geologists, and with the rise of DNA sequencing and genomics, molecular biologists have provided invaluable assistance.� In 1 996, a paper was published that created a huge splash in paleontological circles. [144] � Molecular biologists used the concept of the �molecular clock� of genetic divergence among various species.� Their work concluded that the stage was set for animal emergence hundreds of millions of years before they appeared in the fossil record, particularly during the Cambrian Explosion.� That paper initiated its own explosion of genetic research, and the current range of estimates has the genetic origins of animals somewhere between 1.2 bya and 700 mya, but this field is in its infancy and more results are surely coming. [145] � From an early optimism that molecular clocks could finely calibrate the timing of events, scientists have come to admit that �molecular clocks� do not reliably keep time.� Today, molecular evidence is used more to tell what happened than when.� The geological and archeological record is considered more accurate for dating, and that evidence is used for calibrating molecular evidence.� Even though �molecular clocks� keep far from perfect time, they are being used to do some timekeeping, when they can be bounded by other timing evidence, with a kind of interpolation of the data points. [...]

The Constitution of the United States of America

Format: Paperback Language: English Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 12.75 MB Downloadable formats: PDF It is Isavasyamidam Sarvam: every content of the universe is throbbing with the Life of the Lord. In response to Egypt's catastrophic loss to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, and the seeming failure of secularism, there also was a push to return to Islamic laws which had been abandoned. They also often add the suffix –"ito" or –"ita" (meaning "little") to the end of words. Stone statues crudely carved in the round, reach life-size. After the next inevitable apocalypse, men will be desperately needed again! [...]

History, Theory, Text

Format: Print Length Language: English Format: PDF / Kindle / ePub Size: 10.69 MB Downloadable formats: PDF Its architects designed buildings that defied gravity. They suffer from physical weakness and diseases. These games also incorporate ideas about nationalism and national identities that were only fixed in the nineteenth century and are thus inappropriate when considering the whole span of human history. A dynasty is a family that passes the right to rule the nation from one generation to the next. Even in Islam’s early days, pictures in private dwellings were tolerated. [...]